The word Reincarnation in the Psychological Literature
1987 to 1995
Of 30 abstracts of papers appearing in the Psychological literature in the nine years from 1987 to 1995 containing references to Reincarnation, sixteen have been listed here. (No others were found in some 600 medical and psychological journals.) They may be of interest to students who have an interest in the spread of the idea, and who are students of the spread of ideas generally. It may be noted that, in the abstracts at least, Karma is referred to only once. (Three of the 30 abstracts have been relegated to the end as being of lesser interest.)
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TI: The pragmatics of empathy.
JN: Annual-of-Psychoanalysis; 1995 Vol 23 1-12
AB: There has been no disagreement within psychoanalysis about the essential role of empathy in accomplishing the goals of analysis. It is not uncommon, however, to encounter statements in the literature equating empathy with the acceptance without demurral of the subjective viewpoint of the analysand. It is not obvious how psychoanalysts should conduct themselves "empathically." Questions about how to be effectively empathic become relevant with analysands who develop an archaic transference wherein the analyst is experienced as the reincarnation of a traumatically unempathic caretaker of early childhood. An analyst's responses, when guided by true and accurate empathy, are not necessarily nice, warm, or gentle. Analysts are often reluctant to intervene forcefully, believing such behavior to contravene the principle of neutrality. It is necessary to set limits and stop patients from dictating what must (or must not) occur in analysis.
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TI: The healing power of the unconscious: How can we understand past life experiences in psychotherapy?
JN: South-African-Journal-of-Psychology; 1995 Jun Vol 25(2) 90-98
AB: Reviews 68 studies, published 1956-1993, on past-life experiences, or regression, in the context of psychotherapy. Three explanations for the phenomenon are considered: past lives may be viewed as fantasy or cryptoamnesia, as material from the collective unconscious, or as reincarnation. A perspective that approaches past lives as an expression of the many subpersonalities within the psyche that are dramatized and emerge as stories or other selves is discussed for its therapeutic value. (Afrikaans abstract)
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TI: Belief in reincarnation and locus of control.
AU: Alprin,-Lurene; Lester,-David
JN: Psychological-Reports; 1995 Jun Vol 76(3, Pt 1) 1018
AB: Explored whether belief in reincarnation was associated with the personality measure locus of control. Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and a questionnaire about beliefs was given to 83 college undergraduates (mean age 25.7 yrs). Results indicate that an external locus of control was associated with belief in reincarnation but not with a general belief in life after death.
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TI: Death symbolism in matrilineal societies: A replication study.
JN: Cross-Cultural-Research-The-Journal-of-Comparative-Social-Science; 1995 May Vol 29(2) 158-177
AB: Attempted for a 2nd time to replicate findings of a cross-cultural study by S. Somersan (see PA, Vol 72:1050) of ancestral spirit, afterlife, and reincarnation beliefs in relation to descent groups. Somersan found significance on 4 tests and described a pattern of death symbolism that seemed to typify matrilineal societies as compared with nonmatrilineal ones. The replication sample had only 2 matrilineal societies, which were grouped together with 4 societies with double descent for analysis. The methodology and coding rules used by Somersan were followed closely. None of Somersan's findings was supported. An alternative hypothesis, contrasting unilineal and bilateral societies' beliefs in ancestral spirits and reincarnation, was supported.
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TI: Anomalies of consciousness: Indian perspectives and research.
JN: Journal-of-Parapsychology; 1994 Jun Vol 58(2) 149-187
AB: Reviews Indian literature on parapsychological phenomena (PP) to interpret traditional PP ideas in the context of scientific research. The beginnings of systematic studies and field studies (including spontaneous case studies of possession, near-death experiences, miracle makers, and reincarnation) are described. Laboratory psi research on topics such as personality and ESP; differential effect and ESP in life settings; meditation, subliminal perception, and psi; and cognitive variables are also discussed. In the Indian tradition, PP are regarded as normal manifestations of the mind functioning independently of the sensorimotor processes. Indian researchers have made important contributions to advance parapsychology, including the provision of significant evidence for a strong relationship between ESP scores and personality factors (such as neuroticism) and between the practice of meditation and psi scoring.
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TI: Past lives and hypnosis. 9th National Convention of Australian Hypnotherapists (1994, Sydney, Australia).
JN: Australian-Journal-of-Clinical-Hypnotherapy-and-Hypnosis; 1994 Sep Vol 15(2) 67-91
AB: Discusses the study of past life (PL) therapy, the theory of reincarnation, and the use of hypnosis in the recall of PL memories. Two case studies are presented to illustrate a method involving the alternation of hypnosis and the waking state to recall memories of people, events, places, and emotions. It is argued that if the theory of reincarnation is true, the ramifications for psychology and behavioral therapy are significant. (0 ref)
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TI: Replication studies of cases suggestive of reincarnation by three independent investigators.
AU: Mills,-Antonia; Haraldsson,-Erlendur; Keil,-H.-H.-Jurgen
IN: U Virginia, Anthropology Dept, Div of Personality Studies, Charlottesville, US
JN: Journal-of-the-American-Society-for-Psychical-Research; 1994 Jul Vol 88(3) 207-219
AB: Investigated 3 replications of I. Stevenson's studies, at his request, of children who are reported to remember a previous, unrelated life. In one, 60 cases in Burma, Thailand, and Turkey were studied; in the 2nd, 25 cases in Sri Lanka were reviewed; and in the 3rd, 38 cases in India were assessed. From a combined sample of 123 cases, 1 case from each group is presented in detail, with each case representing an instance in which a high degree of correspondence was found between the child's recollections and the characteristics of a deceased person unknown to the child or the family. It is concluded that in some of the cases, the children had no normal way of knowing about the person with whom they identified themselves. Attention is drawn to problem areas to be overcome in future studies and the hope that further research may lead to a better understanding of the dynamics of child development.
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TI: / The development of children's concepts of death.
IN: Educational Counseling Ctr of the Board of Education, Chofu City, Japan
JN: Japanese-Journal-of-Developmental-Psychology; 1994 Jun Vol 5(1) 61-71
AB: Studied age differences in theories and views on death and reincarnation. Human Ss: 205 normal male and female Japanese preschool and schoolage children and adolescents (aged 3-13 yrs). Nine questions were posed in individual interviews. Ss' understanding of the meaning and inevitability of death, ability to distinguish between actual death and make-believe death, and beliefs and concepts regarding reincarnation were examined. (English abstract)
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TI: reincarnation beliefs among near-death experiencers.
IN: U Connecticut, US
JN: Journal-of-Near-Death-Studies; 1993 Fal Vol 12(1) 17-34
AB: Several researchers have found that near-death experiences (NDEs) tend to increase belief in reincarnation. This study examined factors underlying this belief shift. The author used a questionnaire to compare the tendency toward belief in reincarnation among 43 near death experiencers (NDERs), 34 individuals merely interested in NDEs, and 30 nonexperiencer, noninterest controls. In addition, 14 NDERs were interviewed to gain insight into factors influencing NDERs' beliefs. NDERs' reincarnation belief shift appeared to be due to (1) direct knowledge of reincarnation gained by some NDERs in the NDE itself, (2) knowledge of reincarnation gained through a general psychic awakening following the NDE, or (3) exploration of alternative perceptions of reality following the NDE.
TI: Prevalence and correlates of New Age beliefs in six Protestant denominations.
IN: Search Inst, Minneapolis, MN, US
JN: Journal-for-the-Scientific-Study-of-Religion; 1993 Jun Vol 32(2) 177-184
AB: A nationwide sample of 561 congregations representing 6 Protestant denominations found that only 7.9% of respondents endorsed specific New Age beliefs such as astrology and reincarnation. In contrast, attitudinal statements supportive of New Age ideologies were endorsed by nearly one-third of the respondents. Southern Baptists were particularly low in their endorsement of New Age beliefs and attitudes; no denomination was particularly high. These beliefs and attitudes apparently were unrelated to other measures of religiousness, satisfaction with one's present congregation or denomination, and most demographic variables, except for a negative relation between education and both astrology and the belief that "all spiritual truth is within me." These beliefs were more common among theological liberals.
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TI: The problem of student involvement in the mermaid cult: A variety of belief in reincarnation (Ogba Nje) in a Nigerian secondary school.
AU: Ebigbo,-Peter-O.; Anyaegbuna,-B.
IN: U Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria
JN: Journal-of-African-Psychology; 1988 Vol 1(1) 1-14
AB: Examined 600 pupils in a Nigerian secondary school who complained of the "Ogba Nje" or pathological form of reincarnation. Ss were studied during psychotherapy and by direct interview. They believed in a Mermaid with a group of members who attended meetings with her in the water while they slept. Ss dreamed of snakes, water, bridges and believed the water spirit fed on blood and also gave it to her members. Ss offered gifts to people to entice them to join the group and cause accidents to spill blood. They engaged in sexual intercourse in the imagined spirit world. Ss were usually quiet and had problems, such as poverty, social isolation, and fear. Therapy succeeded if the belief system was ignored and the underlying problem was discussed or resolved. (French abstract)
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TI: Commentary on the Akolkar and Stevenson reports.
JN: Journal-of-the-American-Society-for-Psychical-Research; 1992 Jul Vol 86(3) 249-256
AB: Comments on the reports of V. V. Akolkar (see PA, Vol 80:4418) and I. Stevenson (1984) of a case of xenoglossy in a 32-yr-old Indian woman. The agreement between the reports shows how the case lends itself to a reincarnation explanation and indicate how difficult it is to dismiss the case as due to deceit, cryptomnesia, or malobservation.
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TI: Search for Sharada: Report of a case and its investigation.
JN: Journal-of-the-American-Society-for-Psychical-Research; 1992 Jul Vol 86(3) 209-247
AB: Presents the case of Uttara Huddar, a Marathi-speaking woman of India who began at the age of 32 yrs to undergo alterations of personality during which she claimed to be a young Bengali woman named Sharada. At these times she spoke fluent Bengali and behaved as if she were a Bengali woman of the early 19th century. She also seemed mystified by modern ways and made several verified statements about a family who had lived at that time. Investigations showed that although Huddar had learned to read some Bengali, this did not amount to proficiency; much less could it explain her ability to speak the language. Although it is atypical of reincarnation-type cases, in most of which the S is a young child, reincarnation, rather than extrasensory cognition or possession, seems the most satisfactory interpretation of this case.
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TI: Art imitates life: Deja vu experiences in prose and poetry.
AU: Sno,-Herman-N.; Linszen,-Don-H.; de-Jonghe,-Frans
IN: Academic Medical Ctr, Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic, Amsterdam, Netherlands
JN: British-Journal-of-Psychiatry; 1992 Apr Vol 160 511-518
AB: Reviews over 20 literary descriptions that are consistent with the data obtained from psychiatric literature, including various phenomenological, etiological, and psychopathogenetic aspects of the deja vu experience. The explanations, explicitly formulated by creative authors, include reincarnation, dreams, organic factors, and unconscious memories. Not infrequently, an association with defense or organic factors is demonstrable on the basis of psychoanalytic or clinical psychiatric interpretation. Psychiatrists are encouraged to overstep the limits of psychiatric literature and read prose and poetry as well.
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TI: Belief in the paranormal and religious belief among American college students.
AU: Duncan,-David-F.; Donnelly,-J.-William; Nicholson,-Thomas
IN: Operation Interface, Carbondale, IL, US
JN: Psychological-Reports; 1992 Feb Vol 70(1) 15-18
AB: 267 university students (aged 18-50 yrs) completed a survey of beliefs about the paranormal. Protestants were more likely to believe in the Devil, possession by the Devil, and witches, but less likely to believe in reincarnation or haunted houses. Catholics were more likely to believe in astrology. Ss whose religion was important to them were less likely to believe in the Devil, possession by the Devil, astrology, ESP, or reincarnation. Overall, neither the Ss' religious faith nor self-reported religiosity were associated with beliefs in the paranormal.
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TI: Three conjectured features of reincarnation-type cases in North India: Responses of persons unfamiliar with actual cases.
IN: Bangalore U, National Inst of Mental Health & Neurosciences, India
JN: Journal-of-the-American-Society-for-Psychical-Research; 1990 Jul Vol 84(3) 227-233
AB: Compared responses of 46 informants in India who had had no direct contact with a case of the reincarnation type with features found in actual cases with regard to 3 questions. These questions pertained to 3 recurrent features of cases: the age at first speaking about a previous life, the age at spontaneously stopping to speak about a previous life, and the mode of death (violent or natural) associated with recall of a previous life. The ages estimated by the respondents were significantly higher than those found in actual cases for both starting as well as stopping to speak spontaneously about the previous life. A violent mode of death, however, was reported frequently by the respondents to be associated with recall of a previous life. This accords with the findings in actual cases.
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TI: Secondary identity enactments during hypnotic past-life regression: A sociocognitive perspective.
AU: Spanos,-Nicholas-P.; Menary,-Evelyn; Gabora,-Natalie-J.; DuBreuil,-Susan-C.; et-al
IN: Carleton U, Ottawa, ON, Canada
JN: Journal-of-Personality-and-Social-Psychology; 1991 Aug Vol 61(2) 308-320
AB: In 4 studies, Ss received hypnotic suggestions to regress beyond birth to a previous life. In Study 1, the development of a past-life identity was unrelated to indexes of psychopathology. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that Ss developed past-life identities that reflected hypnotist-transmitted expectations. In Study 4, the credibility that Ss assigned to their past-life experiences was influenced by whether the hypnotist defined such experiences as real or imagined. Combined data from the first 3 studies indicated that hypnotizability predicted the subjective intensity of past-life experiences but not the credibility assigned to these experiences. Alternatively, beliefs, attitudes, and expectations concerning reincarnation predicted the degree of credibility assigned to these experiences. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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TI: Belief in the paranormal: A New Zealand survey.
IN: Massey U, Palmerston North, New Zealand
JN: Journal-of-the-Society-for-Psychical-Research; 1991 Apr Vol 57(823) 412-425
AB: Examined belief in paranormal phenomena among 1,048 university students (aged 16-68 yrs). Over half of the Ss indicated belief in telepathy, precognition, and life after death. Over 30% also expressed belief in clairvoyance, astrology, biorhythms, body auras, astral projection, flying saucers/unidentified flying objects (UFOs), psychic healing, and ghosts. The beliefs were examined in relation to gender, age, conservatism, and religiosity. Women were stronger than men on religiosity and expressed greater belief than men in ESP, life after death, astral projection, astrology, psychic healing, and reincarnation. Men had stronger belief in flying saucers/UFOs. Factor analysis revealed 3 independent dimensions comprising belief in the paranormal: psi-related belief, traditional religious belief, and extraordinary life forms.
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TI: Psychic experiences in the multinational human values study: Who reports them?
AU: Haraldsson,-Erlendur; Houtkooper,-Joop-M.
IN: U Iceland, Faculty of Social Science, Reykjavik, Iceland
JN: Journal-of-the-American-Society-for-Psychical-Research; 1991 Apr Vol 85(2) 145-165
AB: Three items on personal psychic experiences (PEs), telepathy, clairvoyance, and contact with the dead, were included in a survey on human values that was conducted on 18,607 adults from 13 countries in Europe and from the US. In Europe, the percentage of Ss reporting telepathy was 34%; clairvoyance was reported by 21%, and 25% reported contact with dead. Percentages for the US were 54%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. There were great national differences. There was little or no effect of education and age on reports of PEs, but there were striking effects of sex, marital status, reports of positive and negative affects, and several other variables. There was no response bias effect. After national differences, variables best predicting PE were sum of affect and belief in reincarnation.
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TI: Elevated, specific temporal lobe signs in a population engaged in psychic studies.
AU: Persinger,-M.-A.; Fisher,-Susan-D.
IN: Laurentian U of Sudbury, Neuroscience Lab, ON, Canada
JN: Perceptual-and-Motor-Skills; 1990 Dec Vol 71(3, Pt 1) 817-818
AB: 20 female members (aged 24-65 yrs) of a psychic group who reported frequent subjective psi experiences and endorsed exotic beliefs (e.g., belief in reincarnation) displayed significantly higher incidence of temporal lobe signs than did 61 same-age university women. Findings were based on responses to a personal philosophy inventory.
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TI: An unusual case of hypnotic regression with some unexplained contents.
JN: Journal-of-the-American-Society-for-Psychical-Research; 1990 Oct Vol 84(4) 309-344
AB: Discusses the hypnotic technique of past-life regression, in particular the case of a woman and her obsession with a past life as Antonia in 16th century Spain. In an effort to rid the S of her obsession, which caused her to neglect the people and activities of her current life, the author attempted to discount the reality of the past life by finding errors in the story. After verifying hundreds of detailed facts in English and Spanish texts, and through trips to Spain, the Caribbean, and North Africa, no errors were found. Explanations offered for the past-life experience include psychodynamic factors, fraud, cryptomnesia, role playing, dissociation or multiple personality, genetic memory, racial memory, clairvoyance, precognition, retrocognition, telepathy, mediumship, possession, and reincarnation.
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TI: Experiences with psychotherapy training in India. 14th International Congress of Medical Psychotherapy: Training in medical psychotherapy: Cross-cultural diversity (1988, Lausanne, Switzerland).
JN: Psychotherapy-and-Psychosomatics; 1990 Vol 53(1-4) 14-20
AB: On the basis of 32 yrs of psychiatric experience in India, the author shows how difficulties encountered not only in psychotherapy with Indian patients but also in supervision of candidates in training for psychotherapy can be related to specific cultural patterns of personality development and social intercourse and, beyond this, traced back to their deeper roots in the traditional Indian world view, as represented by the ancient Hindu scriptures. The lack of an anthropocentric orientation, the discouragement of egoistic and individualistic strivings, and the doctrine of karma and reincarnation, all essential elements of traditional Hindu philosophy and all pointing to an ultimate reality that goes beyond anything that speech or thought can reach, leave very little to work on for someone approaching a traditional Indian scene with the tools and methods of Western psychotherapy.
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TI: Response to "Over the border": The nonreification of "self."
JN: Transactional-Analysis-Journal; 1990 Jan Vol 20(1) 56-59
AB: Comments on the article by S. van Beekum and W. Lammers (see PA, Vol 78:16140) and stresses that the explanation therapists use to work with a client in "past-life" therapy may possibly solidify the client's suffering if such an explanation solidifies "self." The article by van Beekum and Lammers presents reincarnation from points of view that do propose some notion of ongoing self. Use of a theory that assumes past-life experience is fantasy, metaphor, or in some other way not historical is suggested.
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TI: Compensations posthumes: Deux pratiques de mort volontaire en Siberie. / Posthumous compensation: Two types of self-inflicted death in Siberia. 19th Meeting of the Group for the Study and Prevention of Suicide: Life events and suicide attempts (1987, Clermont-Ferrand, France).
IN: Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Section des Sciences Religieuses, Paris, France
JN: Psychologie-Medicale; 1988 Mar Vol 20(3) 439-440
AB: Discusses 2 accepted forms of self-inflicted death in Siberia that derive from the notion that reincarnation is possible within a family grouping: (1) in hunting, suicide as compensation for the game killed and (2) in pastoral life, suicide as a form of individual expression and vengeance. (English abstract)
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TI: Can children be stopped from speaking about previous lives? Some further analyses of features in cases of the reincarnation type.
AU: Stevenson,-Ian; Chadha,-N.-K.
IN: U Virginia Health Sciences Ctr, Dept of Behavioral Medicine & Psychiatry Div of Personality Studies, Charlottesville, US
JN: Journal-of-the-Society-for-Psychical-Research; 1990 Jan Vol 56(818) 82-90
AB: Analysis of data from 274 reincarnation-type cases revealed no significant correlation between (1) S's age at first speaking and the age of the previous personality (PP) at death or the length of the interval between death and birth, (2) the PP's age at death and the interval between death and birth, and (3) the number of different statements the S made about the previous life (PL) and the duration of speaking about it. In 41% of the cases, parents took measures to suppress the children from talking about PLs. However, there was no significant difference between the use of such measures and the duration of the child's speaking about the PL. Possible parental roles in the propagation of ideas of reincarnation are discussed.
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TI: A preliminary investigation of cases of reincarnation among the Beaver and Gitksan Indians.
IN: U Virginia School of Medicine, Div of Personality Studies, US
JN: Anthropologica; 1988 Vol 30(1) 23-59
AB: Describes belief in and reported cases of reincarnation among 2 Native Canadian groups, the Beaver and the Gitksan Indians, and provides examples in which a child identified as a particular person was said to have returned. Group differences in beliefs (e.g., belief in cross-sex reincarnation among the Beaver, multiple reincarnation of one person among the Gitksan) are cited as examples of cultural conditioning. Belief in reincarnation characterized shamanic cultures in general and was maintained in many agricultural societies. The role of such case-oriented research within the discipline of anthropology is discussed. (French abstract)
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TI: Analisis tematico de los delirios endogenos. (Thematic analysis of endogenous deliria.) XVII National Congress of the Spanish Psychiatric Society (1987, Pamplona, Spain).
IN: Facultad de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain
JN: Revista-de-Psiquiatria-y-Psicologia-Medica; 1987 Apr-Jun Vol 18(2) 65-79
AB: Interviewed patients with endogenous deliria. Against the opinions of a large number of psychiatrists and psychologists, the present author emphasizes the importance of delirious utterances, not only as symptoms of specific psychiatric disorders but also as human documents. Based on 50 case histories, endogenous deliria were categorized according to their broad themes (e.g., end-of-the-world experience; ontological transformations of human life; reincarnation; New Age themes; immortality of the human race; interhuman aggression; creation of symbols; cosmogony). It is concluded that the psychiatrist as homo sapiens must understand the utterances of homo demens, listening to his/her patients instead of silencing them with psychodrugs. (0 ref)
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TI: The dimensions of computing. 21st Annual Meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology (1991, San Francisco, California).
IN: Hamilton Coll, Clinton, NY, US
JN: Behavior-Research-Methods,-Instruments-and-Computers; 1992 May Vol 24(2) 109-115
AB: Discusses computing as it is used in psychological research, from the perspectives of the temporal, spatial, economic, and social dimensions. Progress made over the 20 yrs since the computer first made its presence felt in the discipline of psychology is examined, and speculations are made about what is to be expected in the years to come. Fractal growth of computing systems resulting from the successive rotations of the "wheel of reincarnation" is illustrated. The wheel of reincarnation describes the evolution of increasingly sophisticated peripheral devices.
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TI: History, 1924 to 1972, of the Division of Consulting Psychology. Special Issue: Centennial issue--Learning from our history.
JN: Consulting-Psychology-Journal-Practice-and-Research; 1992 Sum Vol 44(2) 2-8
AB: The antecedents, initial organization, early demise, and eventual reincarnation of the Division of Consulting Psychology of the American Psychological Association are reviewed briefly, with further attention given to the developments from 1946 to 1972. The historical uncertainty and lack of agreement in regard to the definition and distinctive characteristics of consultative activities are noted, and a descriptive definition of a consulting psychologist is suggested which differentiates consultation from direct "prime mover" activities.
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TI: Souvenir et memoire une etude clinique de l'oubli. (Recollection and memory: A clinical study of forgetting.)
IN: Service Local de Psychologie Appliquee de la Region Maritine Mediterannee, Toulon Naval, France
JN: Psychologie-Medicale; 1990 Nov Vol 22(13) 1351-sup-1353
AB: Distinguishes between the function of memory and its product, recollection, or its absence, which is called forgetting (or oblivion). Oblivion is a configuration of death: loss of recollection, loss of consciousness and knowledge. Memory, in contrast, opens up toward a dimension of eternity, recalling the belief in metempsychosis, or reincarnation of soul. As a study field, memory and its disorders are situated at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Memory is a relational function of psychic life where recollections and things forgotten have the value of parapraxes. Psychotherapy, which leads to rememoration of recollections, cures through oblivion of traumas. (0 ref) (English abstract)