H.P. Blavatsky Collected Writings, Volume 13 Page 369



The material contained in the following pages is of necessity a selective one, and is intended to serve three purposes: (a) to give condensed information, not otherwise readily available, about the life and writings of some individuals mentioned by H.P.B. in the text, and who are practically unknown to the present-day student; (b) to give similar data about a few well-known scholars who are discussed at length by H.P.B., and whose writings she constantly quotes; and (c) to give full information regarding all works and periodicals quoted or referred to in the main text and in the Compiler’s Notes, with or without biographical data about their authors. All such works are marked with an asterisk ( *) In addition to that, rather extensive biographical sketches have been included, in connection with a number of outstanding workers in the early period of the Theosophical Movement, which should be helpful in acquiring a better knowledge concerning the history of the Movement as a whole.

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AEACUS (Greek Myth.) A lesser god renowned for justice and piety. He was a son of Zeus and Aegina, a daughter of the river Asopus. As king of Aegina, he ruled the Myrmidons who were created out of ants by Zeus. When. drought desolated Greece, his intercession obtained rain from Zeus.

ALLEN, GRANT, (pseud.) Charles Grant Blairfinde. (1848-1899). Vide, BCW Vol. X, p. 411, for biographical sketch.

AMÉLINEAU, M. E. (1850-1915) “Essai sur le gnosticisme égyptien, ses développements et son Origine égyptienne,” in Annales du Musée Guimet, Vol. XIV, Paris, 1887. See part 3, pp. 166.322 on the system of Valentinus, and on the Pistis Sophia.

—Notice sur le Papyrus gnostique Bruce, Texte et Traduction, in Notices et Extraits des Manuscripts de la Bibliotheque Nationale et Autres Bibliothéque, xxix, pt. 1, pp. 65-305. Paris, 1891.

—Les Traits gnostiques d’Oxford; Étude critique; in Revue de l’Histoire des Religions, xxi, No. 2, pp. 178-260, Paris, 1890.

—Pistis Sophia, Ouvrage gnostique de Valentin, traduit du copte en, francias avec une Introduction. xxxii, 204 pp., Paris, 1895. Amélineau seeks to find the origin of P.S. in Egypt, and ascribes Valentinus as its author and thinks the MS. was copied in the 9th or 10th century, an opinion not shared by others.

AMMIANUS (b. 325-or 330 at Antioch, d. 395?) A Roman historian of Greek ancestry and noble birth. Served under Ursicinus, governor of Nisibis, traveled twice to the East, and narrowly escaped death at Amid (Diarbekr). He accompanied the Emperor Julian in his campaigns against the Persians. Later he settled at Rome, and at an advanced age wrote the history of the Roman empire during the years 96 A.D. to 378 A.D., which constituted an adjunct to the Histories oj Tacitus. Of his Rerum Gestarum Libri xxxi, in 31 books, only 18 survive, covering the years 353 through 378 A.D. His writings are considered very reliable by scholars. Philosophically Ammianus exhibited a tendency towards Neoplatonism, and showed open mindedness, and unprejudiced competence. The earliest edition of the Rerum Gestarum Libri is that of Sabinus, 1474; with notes by Wagner-Erturdt, 1808; by Gardhausen, 1874-75; English translation by P. Holland, London, 1609; and by Charles Duke Younge, (Bohn’s Classical Library) London, 1862.

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ANAXAGORAS. Greek philosopher, b. circa 500 B.C. at Clazomenae. He disposed of all his property as a hindrance to his search for knowledge. He studied under Anaximenes of Miletus, and later settled at Athens. His disciples were Socrates, Euripedes, Archelaus, and others of repute. As an Astronomer, he was the first to openly explain the planetary movements, eclipses, etc. His theory of Chaos . . . “nothing comes from nothing”, and “atoms as the essence of all” . . . originating from universal intelligence or Nous, foreshadowed much of present day philosophy. He stated that stars were of the same material as the earth, that the sun was a glowing mass, and the moon was a dark uninhabitable body which reflected the sun. “The real existence of things perceived by the senses, can never be proved.” He died at age 72 at Lampsacus. An edition of his collected fragments has been published by E. Schauhach, Leipsig, 1827; by W. Schorn, Bonn, 1829.

ARCHYTUS (ca. 428.347 B.C.). Greek philosopher, mathematician and statesman of Tarentum who belonged to the Pythagorean school and was an intimate friend of Plato. Elected seven times commander of the army. Tradition says he was drowned on a voyage across the Adriatic, and was buried at Matinum in Apulia. He is described as the eighth leader of the Pythagorean school, and as a pupil of Philolaus. Fragments of his ethical and metaphysical writings are quoted by Stobaeus, Simplicius and others. He is said to have solved the problem of the doubling of the cube, to have invented the methods of analytical geometry, to have been the first to apply the principles of mathematics to mechanics, and to have constructed various machines, such as the wooden flying dove. The study of acoustics and music were also advanced by his investigations.

ARGYLL, GEORGE JOHN DOUGLAS CAMPBELL, EIGHTH DUKE OF (1823-1900). Scottish politician and writer prominent on the Liberal side of Parliamentary politics. Eloquent speaker in the House of Lords and postmaster-general, 1855. Secretary of State for India under Gladstone, 1868. In spite of later political disagreement, his personal relations with Gladstone, based on common intellectual interests, remained unchanged. His chief preoccupation was the reconciliation of the dogma of Christianity with advancing scientific progress. Among his works which had a considerable influence on Victorian thought may be mentioned: *The Reign of Law, 1866; PrimeVal Man, 1869; The Unity of Nature, 1884.


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ARNALD DE VILLA NOVA (ca. 1235-1313). Also known as Arnaldus Villanovanus and Arnaud de Villeneuve. Alchemist, astrologer and physician, most likely of Spanish origin; profound student of chemistry, medicine, physics and Arabian philosophy. After baying lived at the court of Aragon, he went to Paris, where he gained considerable reputation, but incurred the enmity of the clergy and was forced to flee, finally finding an asylum in Sicily. In 1313, be was summoned to Avignon by Pope Clement V who was ill, but died on the voyage. A number of alehemical writings are ascribed to him, such as Novum Lumen, Flos Florum, Speculum Alchimiae and Rosarius philosophorurn. Collected editions of them were published at Lyon in 1504 and 1532 (with a biography of Symphorianus Campegus), at Basel in 1585, at Frankfort in 1603, and at Lyon in 1686. A medical work, the Breviarum Practicae is also ascribed to him. Consult E. Lalande, Arnaud de Villeneuve, sa vie et ses oeuvres, 1896.

ASKEW, DR. ANTHONY (1722-1774). Classical scholar, educated at Cambridge. Studied medicine at Leyden one year, remained three more abroad traveling and buying books before commencing practice at Cambridge in 1750. Had accumulated many valuable MSS. and books numbering over 7000 which were eagerly bought on his passing. MS. No. 5114,* Piste Sophia Coptice was purchased by the British Museum in 1785. C. G. Woide (1725.1790) librarian at the Museum, began serious studies on the MS.

BALDWIN, JOHN DENISON (1809-1883). Pre-Historic Nations, or inquiries concerning some of the great peoples and civilizations of antiquity, and their probable relation to a still older civilization of the Ethiopians or Cushites of Arabia. London, 1869.

BARTHÉLEMY SAINT-HILAIRE, JULES. French philosopher and statesman. Born in Paris August 19, 1805 and died November 24, 1895. Journalist in his early years, he opposed the reactionary policy of the King in Le Globe. After the revolution of 1830, he contributed to various French journals, but in 1833 turned to ancient philosophy and produced a translation of Aristotle which occupied him between 1837 and 1892. He held the chair of ancient philosophy at the college de France from 1838 on, and became a member of the Academy of Moral and Political Science, 1839. Appointed senator for life in 1875, he was minister of foreign affairs in the cabinet of Jules Ferry. He combined political interests with a great deal of scholarly research and writing. In addition to his monumental work on Aristotle (35 volumes), he wrote: Des Védas (1854); Le Bouddha et sa Religion (1860); Du Bouddhisme (1855); Mahomet et le Coran (1865).


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BAYLE, PIERRE. French critic, and embattled Protestant philosopher. Born November 18, 1647 at Carlat, son of Jean Pastor, and Jennes de Brugnieres. He was educated at the universities of Puylaurens and Toulouse, briefly tried Catholicism. At Geneva, theology courses developed discussion and thus his penchant toward scepticism. He was preceptor in several homes in Paris, before becoming Professor of Philosophy at Sedan, remaining till October 1681, then filling the same post at Rotterdam until 1693. While at Sedan, he had started his letter on the comet of 1680, which was published anonymously in 1682, also (anonymously) his criticism of Maimbourg’s Calvinism, which author had been burned by the inquisition. Bayle’s notoriety became considerable. In 1684, he published a few curious pieces on M. Descartes’ philosophy, and founded the periodical News of the Republic of Letters. Deprived of his post in 1693, he labored 14 hours a day for 4 years on his magnum opus, Dictionnaire Critique et Historique, which first appeared in two folio volumes, 1695-96, and was promptly banned in France. A new edition appeared in Holland twice the original size, with the author promising to modify certain ideas, but little changes were made, and it was placed on the Pope’s Index. Editions of 1702, 1713, 1720, and 1730 appeared with Bayle’s supplements. An early English edition was the 10 volume folio of 1735-41, with the last volume as an Index. This work was the forerunner of all biographical dictionaries, and is unique in that the author gave free reign to his opinions throughout. In personal habits Bayle was remarkable for his simplicity, and in character irreproachable. He died December 23, 1706.

BIRCH, SAMUEL (b. November 3, 1813—d. December 27, 1885). English Egyptologist and antiquary, son of the rector of St. Mary Woolnoth, London. Showed interest in obscure subjects at an early age. Briefly at record office, appointed to antiquities dept. British Museum 1836 on account of Chinese proficiency. Later head of Egyptian and Assyrian sections, being for many years the museum S sole Egyptian scholar. He compiled an hieroglyphic grammar and dictionary, histories, studies, and translations numbering over 40 publications; in these subjects, the most popular being his translation of The Harris Papyrus of Rameses III Era. In addition, he wrote on the philology of Chinese and Cypriote. A biography of him was written by Walter De Gray Birch, (b. 1842-d. 19??) which includes a comprehensive bibliography, published at London, 1886.


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*BOOK OF THE WISDOM OF SOLOMON. One of the so-called Apocrypha of the Old Testament. An essay on Wisdom as divine agent in the creation and government of the world. Emanated most likely from intellectual circles of the Jewish Diaspora in Alexandria, and is not earlier than about 150 B.C. It exhibits Platonic and Pythagorean tendencies. Included in R. H. Charles’ Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, Oxford, 1963-64, Vol. I. See also: The Jewish Encyclopaedia, Vol. II, p. 4.46 ft. for extensive review of works and commentaries: (Funk & Wagnall, London and N.Y.C., 1890.)

BOULEY, HENRI-MARIE. Veterinarian, born in Paris, May 17, 1814. He entered Alfort school October 1832, became Chief of the school’s clinic, 1837, Assistant Prof. of Pathology, 1839, and assumed the school’s leadership, in 1845, thereafter becoming inspector General of Veterinary schools from 1864 onward. He administered several missions to investigate bovine pests in England and elsewhere 1865.1867, and was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1868; replaced Claude Bernard in the Chair of Comparative Pathology of the Museum, 1879. He also was instrumental in obtaining legislation towards strict sanitary regulations in France. He wrote an almost infinite number of papers on every aspect of animal health and disease, and was the author of: Lecons de pat hologie cornparée, (au Muséum) Paris, 1882-1883; 2 Vols. son Traitée de l’organisation du pied du cheval, Paris, 2 Vols., 1851. He also collaborated on several dictionaries, periodicals, and treatises. He died November 30th, 1885.

BRUCE, JAMES (1730-1794). Scottish explorer of Africa, born at Kinnard House, Sterlingshire, December 14th. Educated at Harrow and Edinburgh Universities, his wife dying in 1754 after nine months of marriage. Curiosity about oriental MSS. studied at the Escurial in Spain, determined his future Arabic studies. In 1763 he was Council at Algiers commissioned to study antiquities in the area. In 1765 while journeying to various sites, he was shipwrecked, swam ashore, and continued to explore in the Middle East making careful drawings as he went. During this period, he gained enough knowledge of medicine to pass as a physician in these countries. In 1768 he began the quest for the source of the Nile, and reached Abyssinia in 1770, where he was well accepted, a rarity for foreigners. It was during this period of over two years when on good terms with negus Tekla Haimanot II, Ras Micheal the ruler of Abyssinia, and his wife Ozoro Esther, and the people of the country in general, that Bruce obtained many valuable manuscripts, including the Book of Enoch, portions of the Pistis Sophia, and others of major import, now deposited at the Bodleian Library. After difficult travels, he reached Cairo in 1773 and London in 1774, where his accounts of his explorations were received with incredulity. His major work is:
—Travels to discover the Source of the Nile, London, 1805, 5 Vols., again 1813, (8 Vols., with a biography by Alexander Murray, pub. at Edinburgh) , He died 27th, April, 1794.


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BRUGSCH-BEY, HEINRICH KARL (1827.1894). Vide, BCW Vol. XI, p. 568.

BUNSEN, CHRISTIAN CHARLES JOSIAH, BARON von. Egypt’s place in Universal History, tr. by C. H. Cottrell from German, with additions by Samuel Birch, 5 Vols. London, 1848-1867. Vide, BCW Vol. X, p. 415.

CAMBRY, JACQUES DE (1749-1807). “Polygraphe”, or a writer on many subjects, H.P.B. refers to his Monurnens Celtiques, ou recherches sur le culte des Pierres, Paris, 1805.

CARPENTER, WILLIAM BENJAMIN. Naturalist. He was the eldest son of Dr. Lant Carpenter. He was born at Exeter on 29 October, 1813. His father removed to Bristol in 1817. Young Carpenter received his early education there in his father’s notable school, and acquired both exact classical and scientific knowledge. He passed some time in the West Indies as companion to Mr. Estlin. After preliminary work at Bristol Medical School, Carpenter entered University College, London in 1833, as a medical student. After obtaining the Surgeons’ and Apothecaries’ diplomas in 1835 he went to the Edinburgh Medical School and commenced researches on physiology. He wrote papers which showed a marked tendency to seek large generalizations and to bring all the natural sciences to the elucidation of vital functions.
His Principles of General and Comparative Physiology, published in 1839 was the first English book which contained adequate conceptions of a science of biology. He found the anxieties of general medical practice too great for his keen susceptibilities, and undertook further literary work, including a useful and comprehensive Popular Cyclopedia of Science, 1843. In 1844, be moved to London. In 1856, on appointment as registrar of the University of London till his resignation in 1879, when he received the distinction of a C.B., he was appointed a crown member of the senate on the next vacancy and continued an active member till his death, which occurred on 19 November, 1885.
In 1862 the Ray Society published his Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. Some of Carpenter’s most important zoological contributions related to the questions of the animal nature of Eozoon Canadense as found in masses in the Laurentian rocks of Canada. He contributed numerous papers on this subject to the Royal Society, the Canadian, Naturalist (ii. 1865), the Intellectual Observer (viii, 1865), Philosophical Magazine (1865), Geological Society’s Quarterly Journal, &c. For some years before his death he had been collecting materials for a monograph on Fozoon, which he did not complete. Another favorite subject of his research was the structure, embryology, and past history of the feather-stars and crinoids in which he demonstrated important facts of structure and physiology, which were long controverted. His chief paper was “On the Structure, Physiology, and Development of Antedon rosaceus” (Philosophical Transactions, 1866, pp. 671.756). Among his services to zoology, and in a lesser degree to botany, may be reckoned his work on The Microscope and its Revelations, 1856, which reached a sixth edition in 1881. His zoological and botanical and other contributions to the Cyclopedia of Science were afterwards published in separate volumes in Bohn,’s ‘Scientific Library’. The Comparative Physiology of his early Physiology was published separately as an enlarged fourth edition in 1854.
In addition to his principal book, Carpenter’s contributions to physiology were chiefly to the mental and physical aspects of the science. His early papers were followed by others: “On the Mutual Relations of the Vital and Physical Force to Physiology” (Quarterly Journal of Science i. 1864). His view on the relation of mind and brain were acute and in advance of his time.
Carpenter’s deep-sea explorations led him into an extensive field of marine physics. He developed the doctrine of a general oceanic circulation due largely to heat, cold, and evaporation, which had been previously little suspected.
Carpenter’s incessant industry enabled him to take part in many public movements with effect. In 1849, he gained a prize for an essay On the Use and Abuse of ‘Alcoholic Liquors’ (1850), and he wrote further On the Physiology of Temperance and Total Abstinence (1853). He regarded miracles not as violations of natural order, but as manifestations of a higher order. His acceptance of Darwin’s views of evolution was somewhat limited and reserved. He believed that natural selection leaves untouched the evidence of design in creation. In philosophy he especially clung to the reality of an independent will beyond automatism.


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CASSIANUS, JOANNES FREMITA, (or Joannes Massiliensis). Born Circa 360, probably in Provence. At Monastery in Bethlehem during early life with Germanus with whom he visited Egypt and dwelt among ascetics for many years. Deaconized at Constantinople in 403 by John Chrysostom, founded a convent and abbey at Marseilles after 410. Celebrated there on July 25th annually. Writings show orthodoxy and simple directness. At the request of Castor, Bishop of Apt, he wrote De Institutione Coenbiorurn on the monastic life. His Collationes Patrurn is a series of Dialogs with Egyptian holy men on the avoidance of wrong action and demons. See: Opera Omnia Corn Cornrnentariis, In, Patrologie Latina, series Latina, Vol. 49, 50. Paris, 1846.

CLARKE, HYDE (1815-1895). Contributor to Long’s Geography of Eng. gland and Wales (statistical information).
Born London 1815, employed in diplomatic affairs, and was engaged in the Spanish and Portuguese wars of succession. Engineer for the improvement of Morecambe Bay, 1836. Reported on the telegraph system of India 1849, and was honorary agent for Darjeeling, and cotton councillor in Turkey. He was active in settlements and railway plans for India, and in 1868 founded the Council of Foreign Bondholders. His interests being wide, he was active in the Anthropological Institute, and other learned societies, and was vice president of the Royal Historical Society. His authorship of 20 works includes:
—A Grammar of the English Tongue, London, 1853.
—New Dictionary of the English Language, London, 1853, again ‘64, etc.
—A Short Handbook of the Comparative Philology of 15 Tongues, London, 1858.
—Memoire on the Comparative Grammar of Egyptian, Coptic, & Ude, London, 1873.
—Serpent and Siva Worship and Mythology in Central America, Africa, and Asia, London, 1876.
—Atlantis, London, 1885.
—The Picts, London, 1886.

COMPTE, ISADORE AUGUSTE MARIE FRANCOIS XAVIER (1798-1857). Catechism positiviste, etc., etc. Paris, 1852, translated by Richard Congreve as, Catechism of Positive Religion, London, 1858, 3rd ed., 1891.

CONWAY, MONCURE DANIEL (1832-1907). The Sacred Anthology. A book of ethnical (ethnic) scriptures. Collected and edited by M.D.C. London, 1874. 26 other titles by this author.


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CREUZER, GEORG FRIEDRICH. German philologist and archaeologist. Born at Marburg, March 10, 1771; died at Heidelberg, February 16, 1858. Prof. of Philology and Ancient History at Heidelberg for nearly 45 years. His first and most famous work was his Symbolik aud Mythologie der alten Völker, besonders der Griechen (1810-1812), in which he maintained that Homer and Hesiod drew upon Eastern sources for their mythology, which was an ancient revelation that had come down through the Pelasgians. J. D. Guignaut’s Religions de l’antiquite (Paris, 1825-39, in 10 Vols.) is an annotated and expanded translation of Creuzer’s Symbolik.

CUNNINGHAM, ALEXANDER (1814-1893). Director, Archeological Survey of India, Reports. 12 Vols., Simla aud Calcutta, 1871-80; Vide, BCW V, p. 372.

DARMESTETER, JAMES (1849.1894). See BCW Vol. IV, p. 641.

DELBOEUF, JOSEF REMY LEOPOLD (1831-1896). “Logique algorithmigue, Essai sur un Systèm de sigues appliqué à la logique, avec une Introduction ou sant traitées les questions générales relatives à l’emploi des notations dans les sciences”. (Revue Philosophique) Liége, Coulommiers, 1877. Questiones de philosophie et de science, etc., etc., (Revue Philosophique) Paris, Liége, 1883. The latter article is the one referred to by H.P.B. in “Babel of Modern Thought” [cf. p. 83 ff. in this vol.]. Delboeuf’s writings begin in 1858, and concern themselves with the same general themes.

DE PALM, JOSEPH HENRY LOUIS, BARON (1809-1876). Austrian nobleman. The subject of the first legal cremation in America, December, 1876. Over 7000 journals carried articles commenting upon the unprecedented event. See: The Theosophist, Vol. I, p. 187, April, 1880. [The percentage of those requesting this method of interment as of 1980 is over half in the United States].

DE WINDT, HARRY. A Ride to India across Persia and Baluchistan . . . With Illustrations etc., 340 pp. London, Chapman & Hall, 1891.

DIDRON, ADOLPHE NAPOLEON. Archeologist, born at Hautvillers (Marne) March 13, 1806. Educated at the seminaries of Meaux aud Reims, and then in law and medicine at Paris. Following a trip to Normandy with Victor Hugo in 1830, he turned to archeology. In 1835 he was named secretary of the committee of arts and monuments


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formed by Guizot. In 1844 he founded Annales archeologiques which he directed until 1867. At Paris in 1849 he began the manufacture of stained glass windows, used in churches throughout France; later a bronze foundry as well. He was the author of several works dealing with these subjects, aud left considerable treatises on archeology which at the time of his passing were unpublished. Archeology in England, 1857; Paganism in Christian Art, 1853; Iconography of the Opera, 1864. He died November 13, 1867.


DILLMAN, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH AUGUST (1823-1894). German Orientalist aud biblical scholar, born at Tübingen, April 24th. For a short time was pastor at Gersheim, then devoted himself to the study of Ethiopic MSS. in the libraries of Paris, London, and Oxford, causing a revival of Ethiopic study in the 19th century. In 1847 and 1848 prepared catalogs for the British Museum, and Bodleian Library. Appointed Professor Extraordinarius at Tübingen, 1853, Professor of Philosophy at Kiel, 1854, of Theology at Giessen, 1864, and at Berlin in 1869. In 1851 he published a translation of the Book of Enoch, and completed a translation of the Ethiopic bible (Octateuchus Aethiopicus) 1853-55. There followed a long series of theological studies based upon these early manuscripts, the last appearing in 1895, shortly following his death on the 4th of July, 1894.

DRAPER, JOHN WILLIAM (1811.1882). History of the Conflict of Religion and Science. New York, Appleton Co., 1874, xxii, 373 pp.; 3rd ed., 1875, etc. Vide, BCW Vol. III, p. 502; Vol. VI, p. 432.

DULAURIER, JEAN PAUL LOUIS FRANÇOIS ÉDUARDE LEUGE. Histoire, Dogmes, traditions et liturgie de Église armenienne orientale, 2nd edition revised and corrected, Paris, 1857. Recherches sur la chronologie arménienue technique et historique; ouvrage format les prolegoménes de la Bibliothéque historique armeniénne; Chronolgie technique, Paris, 1859. See also his article in Le Moniteur, September 27, 1838; and, Journal Asiatique 4th series, volume 11, June, pp. 534-48, ‘Notice sur le Manuscript coptethébain, instituté La Fidele Sagesse; et sur Ia Publication projetée du Texte et de la Traduction francaise de ce Manuscript.’ On p. 542 Dulaurier states that he had completed his translation of the Pistis Sophia. However, it was never printed.

J.W. Keely in his study. On his left is the globe motor and in the
background is the combined disintegrator. (See overleaf for chart of
Harmonic Evolutions).


Chart of Harmonic Evolutions


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EGINHARDUS (b. circa 770, died 840). His original name being Einhard, also known as Einhartus, Ainhardus, or Heinhardus in early manuscripts. Son of nobility, born near the river Main, educated at the monastary of Fulda, and being precocious was transferred to the palace of Charlemagne in 796. One of a group of scholars around Charlemagne, entrusted with public buildings. Obtained the signature of Pope Leo III regarding land divisions, and retained his position on the accession of Louis in 814. Tutor for Lothair I, who later showed him favor, as emperor. Married Emma, sister of Bernharius, Bishop of Worms, which marriage was later the basis of a romantic fairy tale popular in mediaeval literature. In 815 he was bestowed the domains of Michelstadt aud Mulenheim in the Oldenwald. He is mentioned in several documents as Abbot of eight monastaries in the region. Made peace overtures between Louis 1st’s family after the Emperor’s second marriage. Retired at Mulinheim (later Silgenstadt) 830, and died 14 March, 840. He was a man of very short stature, knew Latin and Greek, and was an intimate of Alcuin. His most well known work is Vita Karoli Magni, which had a prologue added by Walafrid Strabo, and is the best account we have of the life of Charlemagne, containing much intimate information only possible by one closely trusted. First published at Cologne, 1521. English translations by W. Glaister, London, 1877; German translation by Otto Abel, Leipzig, 1893.

ENNEMOSER, JOSEPH (1787-1854). History of Magic, Bohn’s Library, London, 1854. Vide, BCW, Vol. V. p. 373.

FOUCHER, PAUL. Born at Tours April 4, 1704 to a family in the silk industry. After education by the Jesuits, he turned to poetry briefly before rejecting his father’s business in favor of the study of ancient languages at the Sorbonne, thus cutting off his inheritance. He then became tutor for the Duchess of Tremolle. Admitted to l’Academie des inscriptions 1753, he wrote Traite historique d ela religion des Perses, in volumes 25, 27, 29, 31, and 39 of Memoires of the Academy. In this treatise he discusses the origins of the Zoroastrian religion, and its comparisons with that of the Hebrew, Pythagorean, Platonic, and Gnostic systems; refutes Thomas Hyde’s De religione Persarum, concerning the purity of the basis of Magianism.

FREPPEL, CHARLES EMILE. French bishop and politician, born at Oberehenheim, Alsace, June 1, 1827; died at Angers, December 12, 1891. Consecrated Bishop at Angers, 1870. Elected, 1880, deputy for


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Brest. Being the only priest in the Chamber of Deputies, he became the chief parliamentary champion of the Church, voting of course with the Royalist and Catholic party. Among his many scholarly works is the one entitled *Les Apologistes chrétiens au second siécle (1860, 2 Vols.).

FRESNEL, FULGENCE. French Orientalist born at Mathieu April 15, 1795. His youth was devoted to scientific pursuits, translating Berzelius aud later translating Tieck from German, in 1821. At Maronites College, Rome, he studied Arabic before going to Egypt in 1831. There he studied with the Mullas, aud became consular agent at Djeddah in 1837, becoming proficient in the chikili aud makhri dialects aud with Arabic to an extent that he was consulted by the sheiks. He was the first to translate Himyarite inscriptions, aud wrote of a variety of topics including pine-Islamic history. Returning to Europe, he was placed in charge of the expedition to Mesopotamia in 1851 in company with Felix Thomas aud Jules Oppert. Recalled in
1854, Fresnel elected to remain. He died at Bagdad, November 30, 1855. His writings on the ex’pedition are contained in M. Oppert’s work, Expedition en Mesopotamie, 2 Vols., 1858, 1863. A few of Finesnel’s more important works; Hoa-tchou-onan ou le Livre rnysterieux, Paris, 1822; Poesies du desert de Schanfara, Paris 1834; Recherches sur les inscriptions himyariques, dans Journal asiatique, Paris 1845; Memoire de M. Fresnel, consul de France d Djeddah, sur les caravanes du Wadog, dans Annales des Voyages, (no date). Fresuel was an accomplished linguist aud his abilities in Arabic were considered extraordinary.

FRST, JULIUS. German Orientalist, born of Jewish parents at Zerkowo in Posen, May 12, 1805; died at Leipzig, February 9, 1872. Professor of Aramaic at Leipzig aud author of several scholarly treatises, among them the Hebriiisches und Chaldijisehes Handweirterbuch itber das Alte Testament (Leipzig, 1851-61, 2 Vols., Engl. transl. by S. Davidson, London, 1867, 1871).

GASPARIN, AGENOR, COMPTE DE. Born in Orange, July 12, 1810. First cabinet chief (1836) under his father Count Adrien, who was Minister of the Interior. Named magistrate reporter for the state council, 1837. In 1842, Bastia named him envoy to the Chamber of Deputies where he displayed considerable eloquence. He journeyed to the Orient in 1847, protesting against Fevinier’s revolution from Cairo, aud then changing from political interests to the defense of Protestantism, which occupied the remainder of his years. Christianism


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aud Paganism, was published in Geneva, 2 Vols., 1846. This began a long series of similar works which included treatises on moral behavior, family life, etc. He was a vehement pacifist, aud made exertions against the Franco-Prussian war, which due to his proximity to the border (Leman, since 1849) hastened his demise, on May 14th, 1871. His last published work was France, 2 Vols., Paris, 1872.

GINSBURG, CHRISTIAN DAVID. Born December 25, 1831. Educated in his native city at Rabbinic College. With special attention to the Megilloth, he translated the Song of Songs with a commentary in London, 1857. This was followed by a translation of Ecelesiastes (Coheleth) 1861; The Karaites, Their History and Literature, 1862; The Essenes, 1864; The Kabbalah, 1865. In 1867 he edited The Massoreth-Ha-Massoreth of Elias Levita; The Moabite Stone, (tin.) 1870. In that year he was appointed to the committee for the revision of the English version of the Old Testament. His life work culminated in the publication of the Massorab in 3 volumes, 1880-1886. To obtain materials for it, he scoured the libraries aud monasteries of Europe aud the Middle East to discover many obscure manuscripts, over a period of 25 years. He next published Leviticus with Commentary, 1885; The Masoretico-Critical Edition of the hebrew Bible, 1894; Facsimiles of Manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, 1897-1898; The Text of the Hebrew Bible in Abbreviations, 1903; and, “On the Relationship of The So Called Codex Babylonaicus of A.D. 916 to the Eastern Reseension of the Hebrew Text,” 1899, for private circulation. He contributed many articles to Smith’s Dictionary of Christian Biography, Kitto’s Encyclopedia, and, in the Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition a valuable article on the Kabbalab. It is possible he used the pen name “Nurho de Manhar” for a translation of the Zohar that appeared serially in E. T. Hargrove’s periodical The Word. The manuscript used differs from both the Mautua & Cremona MSS. of the Zohar, aud halts abruptly on the death of Ginsburg, March 7, 1914. Style aud references to supporting materials, British grammar, typos caused by a remote location of an author unable to proof copy, aud A. E. Waite’s listing of a “Nurho de Manhar” joining the Golden Dawn in 1888, indicate that Ginsburg may have lead two lives.
A reprint of the Zohar by Nurho de Manhar, with commentaries from The Secret Doctrine appended, has been compiled aud published by Wizards Bookshelf, San Diego, 1978; revised, 1980.

GLANVILL, JOSEPH (1636.1680). Sadducismus Triumphatus, etc., London, 1681. Vide, BCW Vol. V, p. 374.


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HESYCHIUS OF MILETUS. Greek chronicler aud biographer, surnamed Illustratius, son of an advocate; flourished at Constantinople in the 5th century A.D. during the reign of Justinian. Author of a Compendium of Universal History in six books, of which only a fragment of the sixth has been preserved; a Biographical Dictionary of Learned Men, fragments of which are in Photius aud Suidas; aud a History of the Reign of Justin h (518-527) aud the early years of Justinian, completely lost.

HIGGINS, GODFREY A. (1773-1833). Anacalypsis, an Attempt to Draw Aside the Veil of the Saitie Isis, etc. 2 Vols. Lougmans Co., London, 1836. Limited to 200 copies. Reprinted 1867, 1925, 1965.

HUGHES, A. W. The Country of Baluehistan; Its Geography, Topography, Ethnology and History, etc., etc. Illustrated with Map, London, 1877.

IAMBLICHUS (255-333 A.D.) - Vide, BCW Vol. XII, p. 751.

INMAN, THOMAS (1830-1876). Ancient Faiths Embodied in Ancient Names. 2 Vols., London, 1868-69. Vide, BCW Vol. XI, p. 579.

JNNADEVA (1275.1296). Truly one of India’s noblest Yogis. His poetic commentary on the Bhagavad Gltd. Jmiueshwari, was called by H.P.B. a “superb mystic treatise”. In her notes on the Voice of the Silence she quotes parts of it. See Judneshwari, tins, by R. K. Bbagwat, Madras, Samata Books, 1954; Jmineshvari, translated from the Marathi by V. G. Pradan, Boston, Allen & Unwin, 1967; also, The Philosophy of Jminadeva by B. P. Bahirat, Bombay, Popular Book Depot, 1956. This contains a translation of one of Juanadeva’s original works, Amritanubhava.

KATKOV, MIKAIL NIKIPHROVITCH (1820-1887). Publisher. See: From the Caves and Jungles of Hindustan, by II. P. Blavatsky, edited by Boris de Zirkoft, T.P.H., Wheaton, 1975; p. 670, 672 aud index.

KEELY, JOHN ERNST WORRELL. Born 1837. Philadelphia inventor possessing peculiar mental aud psychic capacities, who invented a wide variety of devices said to be based on an undiscovered force in nature, related to the harmonics of etheric laya centers. He was first able to demonstrate a machine in 1872, and, unaware of the full implications of his work, formed the “Keely Motor Company” aud


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issued stock in 1874 in pursuit of commercial success. His first machines were of megalithic proportions, one weighing 22 tons. Most were implemented by the Atlantic Works, aud the Delaware Iron Works, of Philadelphia, aud were scrapped in turn as they were superceded by smaller more sophisticated models. His Generator of 1878 weighed 3 tons, measured 3 x 5 feet, aud had small spherical chambers, five stand tubes of various sizes, aud used but one quart of water to produce 54,000 pounds per square inch pressure. No heat, electricity, or chemicals were used. It was started by moving a four-way valve, there being no other moving parts. Output remained constant regardless of work effected. Unscrupulous stock speculators caused Keely great difficulties, aud Keely himself saw little of the proceeds. Mr. 0. M. Babcock issued in response to countless inquiries, a pamphlet of 32 pages explaining the vicissitudes of the Keely Motor Co. It measures 4” x 6”, aud carries on the front cover Exposition of the Keel y Motor, financial, mechanical, philosophical, historical, aetnal, prospective; Philadelphia, June 1881. On the back cover: The Doom of Steam, Or, the Coming Force, etc., etc. 25. It is now extremely scarce. It was at this time that stockholders obtained court orders against Keely, aud he destroyed many of his machines aud drawings, in fear of confiscation. Later, based on two new inventions, the Vapor Gun, aud the Automatic Water Lift, capital stock was increased from 20,000 to 100,000 shares. The latter invention implemented the raising of water to any height without the application of extraneous power. Of the 80,000 new shares, not 5,000 reached Keely, aud these were used for his necessities. Through manipulation aud frauds, only about one quarter were actually paid for. Through these calumnies his staunch friend aud benefactor Mrs. Clara (nee Jessup) Bloomfield Moore aided him with financial backing aud influence in society. She seemed to be of a keen scientific bent aud ability as demonstrated by her book: Keely aud his Discoveries: Aerial Navigation. Kegan Paul Trench Trubuer Co., London. 1893 (xxviii; 372 pp.) (Reprinted by University Books, NYC, 1972.) Keely had to invent a new terminology to describe his unprecedented ideas, and totally unique machines: Compound Disintegrator, Spirophone, Vibrodyne, Planetary system Engine, Provisional Engine, aud a “Machine for Testing Vibrations under Different Orders of Evolution”. All of these devices were demonstrated successfully during 24 years. By 1888, however, the courts again threatened, aud this time Mrs. Bloomfield-Moore’s son, was able to deprive his mother of all legal aud material rights, thus stopping the flow of his “inheritance” toward Keely’s endeavors. Keely destroyed his Vibratory Microscope



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aud valuable papers, aud vanished from public view. By the this time he had postulated a system of 7 distinct orders of existence with 3 subdivisions . . . between molecular aud the “interetheric”. He died alone aud destitute in November 1898. For further reading see:
Secret Doctrine, Vol. I, pp. 555-566; Theosophical Siftings, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1898 (London periodical); Lucifer, Vol. 3, No. 16; Keely, Pictures of His Discoveries, by G. Wendelholm, Stockholm, 1972. Additional articles have appeared in the British periodicals, Atlantis, Pendulum, and Uranus, in recent years.


KEIGHTLEY, BERTRAM (1860-1945). See biographical sketch in BCW Vol. IX, pp. 432.35.

KENRICK, JOHN. Classical scholar aud historian, was eldest SON of Timothy Keurick by his first wife, Mary. He was born at Exeter on 4 February 1788. In 1793, he began his education under Charles Lloyd, LL.D. aud made such progress that in his twelfth year he was admitted to the Exeter academy as a student for the ministry under his father aud Joseph Bretlaud. His first teaching post was at Devonshire 1804. He continued his theological studies till 1807, when he entered Glasgow University. ON leaving Glasgow he accepted a tutorship in classics, history, aud literature at the Manchester College, York. In July 1817, he was granted a year’s absence for study in Germany. He studied history at Gottingen under Heeren. The following summer semester he devoted to classical study at Berlin under
F. A. Wolf, Boeckh, aud Zumpt, aud attended Schleiermacher’s course of philosophy. He returned to York in September 1820, where he remained as tutor till 1840 when the college reverted to Manchester New College. He then became Professor of History, aud held this chair till 1850. Among others, he published The Egypt of Herodotus, &c, 1841; An Essay on Primeval History, &c., 1846; Ancient Egypt under the Pharaohs, &c., 1850, 2 vols; Papers on Archaeology and History, &c., 1864. In 1832, he edited for Bishop Blomfield the fifth edition of the translation of Matthiae’s Greek Grammar, by Edward Valentine Blomfield, the bishop’s younger brother; aud published separately (1833) an hudex of Quotations from Greek Authors contained in it. He died at York on May 7, 1877.

KLAPROTH, HEINRICH JULIUS, German Orientalist, born in Berlin, October 11, 1783; died in Paris, August 28, 1835. Son of the chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743.1817). Received an appointment


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in the St. Petersburg Academy aud accompanied, 1805, Count Golovkin on an embassy to China. Entrusted with an ethnographical aud linguistic exploration in the Caucasus 1807.1808. Later employed for several years in connection with the Academy’s Oriental publications. Moved to Berlin, 1812; settled in Paris, 1815. In 1816, Humboldt procured for him from the King of Prussia the title and salary of professor of Asiatic languages aud literature. His great work was Asia Polyglotta (Paris, 1823 and 1831) formed a new departure for the classification of Eastern languages. He wrote a number of other scholarly works.

KING, CHARLES WILLIAM. Author of works on engraved gems was born on September 5, 1818 at Newport, Monmouthshire. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a sizar in October 1836, and was elected scholar of his college in 1839, and fellow in 1842. About 1842 King went to Italy, aud there spent several years studying the Italian language aud literature aud in collecting antique gems. The collection, formed between 1845 aud 1877, ultimately consisted of 331 engraved stones, more than two-thirds of Which were Greek aud Roman, the remainder being Sassanian, Gnostic, aud Oriental. About 1878, when his eyesight was seriously failing, King sold his collection, aud it is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at New York.
After King’s return from Italy his life was chiefly spent at Trinity College, Cambridge. He was widely read in the Greek and Roman classics, without having however, a minute philological knowledge. He had specially studied Pausanias aud Pliney’s Historia. His short-sightedness always rendered reading difficult for him, though he had “a microscopic power of discernment for objects such as gems. His writings on ancient gems are original, aud evince the experience of the practical collector.
King’s principal publications are: Antique Gems, London, 1860; The Guosties aud their Remains, London, 1664, 2nd edit. London, 1887. (For a controversy as to misprints aud alterations in this edition see London Atheneum, January-June 1888, p. 441, 468, 499, 535, 662, 696). The Natural History . . . of Precious Stones aud Gems aud of the Precious Metals, London, 1865; also a 2nd edit. in 2 Vols., was published as The Natural History of Gems, or Decorative Stones, Cambridge, 1867; aud The Natural History of Precious Stones aud of the Precious Metals, Cambridge, 1867; The Handbook of Engraved Gems, London, 1866, 2nd edit. 1885; Horatii Opera, illustrated by antique gems selected by C.W.K., 1869; Antique Gems aud Rings, Vol. I text, Vol. II illustrations,


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London, 1873; Plutarch’s Morals, translated by C.W.K., 1882
(Bohn’s Classical Library); Julian the Emperor . . . Theosophical
Works, &c., translated by C.W.K., 1888 (Bohn’s Classical Library) .
King died in London, after a bronchial cold, on March 25, 1888.

KIRCHER, ATHANASIUS. German scholar aud mathematician, born at Geisa, near Fulda, May 2, 1601; died at Rome, November 28, 1680. Educated at the Jesuit College of Fulda, aud became a novice of the order at Mainz, 1618. Taught philosophy, mathematics aud Oriental languages at Wurzburg, from whence he was driven by the Thirty Years War to Avignon in 1631. Settled 1635 at Rome where he taught mathematics in the Collegio Romano, but resigned 1643 to study archaeology. His most famous work is Oedipus Aegyptiacus (1652-1655) which together with other works, first called attention to Egyptian hieroglyphics. Altogether he authored 23 valuable works. Vide, BCW Vol. VII, p. 378.

KNIGHT, RICHARD PAYNE. Numismatist, born in 1750, was the eldest son of the Rev. Thomas Knight (1697-1764). Richard Payne Knight, being of weakly constitution as a boy, was not sent to school till he was fourteen, and did not begin to learn Greek till he was seventeen. He was not at any university. About 1767 he went to Italy, aud remained abroad several years.
Knight again visited Italy in 1777, and from April to June of that year was in Sicily in company with Philipp Hackert, the German painter, aud Charles Gore. Knight kept a journal, which under the title of Tagebuch einer Reise nach Sicilien, was translated aud published by Goethe in his biography of ilackert (Goethe, Werke, x’xxvii. 1830, pp. 146-218, cf. pp. 320.4) . In 1780 he became M.P. for Leominster, aud from 1784 to 1806 sat for Ludlow.
Knight’s first published work was An Account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus lately existing in hsernia; to which is added a Discourse on the Worship of Priapus, aud its Connexion with the Mystic Theology of the Ancients, 1786. In 1791, Knight published An Analytical Essay on the Greek Alphabet, London, 4to, with nine plates. In 1808 he printed privately fifty copies (London, 8vo) of his Carmina Homerica, hlias et Odyssea. This consists of Prolegomena, the text being added in the later edition of 1820. Knight printed privately—An Inquiry into the Symbolical Language of Ancient Art aud Mythology, London, (reprinted in Classical Museum, pp. xxiii-xxvii, and in Specimens of Ancient Sculptures, Vol. II, new ed. by A. Wilder, New York, 1876) . Knight also wrote


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for the Classical Museum, the Philological Museum, aud in the Arehaeologia.
Knight died at his house in Soho Square, London, on April 23, 1824.

LACOUR, PIERRE. Artist aud painter, born 1746 at Bordeaux. He studied under Vien who was enjoying a reputation at the time, going to Rome later to study the masterpieces there. Though offers came from Paris, he preferred to return to Bordeaux. Up to that time, the Academy at Bordeaux bad limited itself to drawing, but following Lacour’s professorship there, talented painters emerged in every subject area, from portraits to seascapes. The largest collection of Lacour’s paintings remain in Bordeaux, but several are in the Louvre at Paris. His most celebrated work, done in the dominican style, represents St. Paulin, Archbishop of Bordeaux, welcoming the persecuted to his palace. This was Lacour’s last work, aud he died January 28, 1814.

LAPOUGE, GEORGES VACHER DE, archeologist aud ethnologist, born at Neuville (Vienne) December 12, 1854. Student of law aud mediclue at the Lyceum, Poitiers; Law doctorate in 1879. Minister of the Republic at Blanc aud Chambon, 1880-1883. Graduate student in history aud philology (Assyrian, Egyptian, Hebrew) at the laboratory of Milne-Edwards. From 1883-1886 studied anthropology, Egypt. ology, aud Chinese and Japanese languages at the Louvre. Assistant Librarian at the University of Montpellier 1886-1893; Librarian, University of Rennes, 1893-1900, aud at University of Poitiers 1900-1909. He taught anthropology aud sociology of Assyria at Montpellier before his extensive explorations of caves aud tombs at Cevenues and Herault, collecting several hundred crania. He was a contributor to Revue d’Authropologie, aud several other scientific journals in France aud Germany. In La Nature, he described a large skull found at the cemetery of Castelnau, as well as older aud larger bones of a fossil appearance indicating a human over 7’ in height. (La Nature, 1890, II, pp. 11.12 with fig.). This tended to confirm an old legend that the cavern at Castelnau was the home of giants. A nearly complete bibliography of 87 entries is to be found in:
Rsum des Travaux Scientifiques de M. G. Vacher de Lapouge. Socit Francaise D’Imprimer et de Librarie, Poiters, March 1909. Doubtless because of its controversial nature, the article mentioned by H.P.B. from Galiguani’s Messenger, is not mentioned. Died 1909.


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LAURENCE, RICHARD. Archbishop of Cashel, born at Bath in 1760. He was educated at Bath grammar school aud at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. After graduating M.A. in 1785, he in 1787 became vicar of Coleshill, Berkshire, where he took pupils. He also contributed to the Monthly Review aud undertook the historical department of the Annual Register. In June 1794, he took the degree of B.C.L. aud D.C.L. as a member of University College. In 1796, he was made deputy professor, aud again settled in Oxford. In 1804, he delivered the Bampton lectures.
From youth Laurence read widely in theology aud canon law, aud in later life he studied Oriental languages. Accordingly in 1814, he was appointed regius professor of Hebrew aud a canon of Christ Church, Oxford. In 1822, after the death of his wife, he reluctantly accepted the arebbishopric of Cashel, Ireland. His erudition is well illustrated by the three volumes in which he printed with Latin aud English translations, Ethiopic versions of apocryphal books of the Bible. The first, the Aseensio hsaiae Vatis. Oxford, 1819, which he dated A.D. 68 or 69, furnished in his opinion arguments against the Unitarian falsification of passages in the New Testament. The second The Book of Enoch the Prophet, Oxford, 1821; (other editions) was printed from the Ethiopic manuscript which James Bruce had brought from Abyssinia aud presented to the Bodleian Library. The third was the Ethiopic version of the first book of Esdras, Oxford, 1820.
Laurence’s other writings include: A Dissertation upon the Logos of St. John, Oxford, 1808, The Book of Job, in the words of the authorized version, arranged aud printed in general conformity with the Masoretical text (anon.), Dublin, 1828. Remarks on the Medical Effects of the Chlorides of Lime aud Soda (anonymously aud privately printed), Dublin, 1832. On the Existence of the Soul after Death; a Dissertation opposed to the principles of Priestly, Law, aud their respective followers, by R.C., London, 1834. Poetical Remains, Dublin, 1872 (twenty-five copies privately printed) , edited with those of Laurence by Dean Cotton. He died on December 28, 1838, at Dublin.

LIEGEOIS, JULES. De la suggestion et du somnambulisme dans leurs rapports avec la jurisprudence et la medicine legale. yii, 758 pp. Paris, Evineux, 1889. (Vol. XI of the “Bibliotheque des Actualites medicales et scientifiques.”)

LUNDY, DR. JOHN PATTERSON (1823.1892) . Monumental Christianity, or the Art aud Symbolism of the Primitive Church, etc., J. W. Bouton, NYC, 1876.


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MALEBRANCHE, NICOLAS (1638-1715). French philosopher of the Cartesian school, youngest child of Nicolas Malebranche, secretary to Louis the XIII; born August 6th at Paris. Deformed aud feeble, he was tutored aud subsequently studied theology at the Sorboune. In 1660 he joined the congregation of the Oratory. He was advised to study ecclesiastical history, but . . “the facts refused to arrange themselves, and mutually effaced each other”. In 1664 he read Descartes’ Traite de l’homme, which moved him deeply. For the next ten years he studied philosophy aud Descartes, which resulted in his famous De la reeherehe de la verite. Many other works followed, concerning themselves with mathematics aud natural philosophy, and in 1699 he was admitted as honorary member of the Academy of Sciences. He enjoyed much success aud was sought out in later years by men of distinction; engaging in a metaphysical argument with Bishop Berkeley hastened his death on 13 October, 1715. An edition of his works was published by Jules Simon in
1842, in 2 volumes.

MALPAS, PHILIP ALFRED. Born February 24, 1875 at Birch, Essex (Stanway District) England, son of Joseph Malpas, an Anglican curate there, and Mary Meuge. Little is known of his formative years, but his family background may have influenced his later researches. At age 18, he enlisted in H.M. Royal Navy, aud was ship’s clerk on a succession of 9 ships plying the world up to 1896. He then became assistant paymaster on 10 more until resigning his commission to the great regret of his captain on May 1, 1904. In that year, he met the Ponsonby family at Trinidad, showing them an album of photos of the Pt. Loma Theosophical Society, aud soon after, the two Ponsonby girls enrolled there. He then joined the Pt. Loma Society aud taught for the boys department in Horticulture aud Nature Studies, and began his career of writing by frequent contributions to The Century Path, and later to The Theosophical Path, and Raja Yoga Messenger for children. Seeing his natural penchant for scholarly research, Katherine Tingley suggested he take up residence at the London Branch for serious studies at the British Museum. Accordingly in about 1910, Malpas began nearly 20 years of uninterrupted research aud writing, with free run of the entire institution. He was supported primarily by the Branch Lodge until the financial difficulties of 1929 precluded his continuation there, and so moved to Essen, Germany as a private tutor in English, aud lecturer. He is shown as a member of the Fremdspracheclub in 1931. At about this time he formed a small group interested in theosophical studies, including Mary Linue, aud Emmi Hacinter,

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[These two women were later jailed as enemies to Hitler’s 3rd Reich for translating the entire Secret Doctrine into German, which manuscript was burned along with their personal library.] Malpas continued in Germany until 1939 when he was instrumental in helping several people of Jewish background defect to England. During the war, he was an instructor for Her Majesty’s Forces at London, aud in 1946, Col. Conger invited him to Theosophical Headquarters which by then had moved to Covina, California. From 1946 to 1950 he was at Covina, until Col. Conger’s death . . . when differences of opinion regarding leadership forced him to return to Germany. There, Mary Linne aud Emmi Hacinter were once again translating the Secret Doctrine into German, at Wirtemberg. Malpas passed away there on July 22, 1958 at the age of 83.
His writings are ex’tremely voluminous, thus only an overview can be attempted here. Of articles in Pt. Loma journals between 1900 aud 1949, over 50 appear on every conceivable subject: some, such as ‘Apollonius of Tyana,’ ‘St. Germain,’ ‘Cagliostro,’ aud ‘Siddhartha Buddha,’ extending over several issues. Theosophische Ge-sellsehaft Unterlengenhardt has published his Apollonius Von Tyana, 1962. The following is a list of some of his unpublished manuscripts, nearly all typed singlespaced on 81/2 x 11 sheets with foreign language words inked in by hand, aud accurate diagrams carefully reproduced in ink. Most are translations from foreign language MSS, in the British Museum:

—The Egyptian Mysteries aud the Crata Repoa.
—Cagliostro’s Masonry, aud Egyptian Mysteries.
—Plato and the Esoteric Doctrine.
—Opus Tertium of Roger Bacon. 368 pp.
—Theosophists of Alexandria aud Athens. 750 pp.
—The Mass aud its Mysteries, by J. M. Ragon. (tin. from Fr.) 250 pp.
—Marcion, The Last of the Christians. 119 pp.
—Pistis Sophia, with notes by H.P.B. from Lucifer articles. 188 pp.; 74 pp., 138 pp. Coptic text aud diagrams inked in, charts , etc.

In addition, about 20 manuscripts dealing with early Christianity aud its esoteric interpretation, aud miscellaneous subjects exist, aud should be worthy of publication in the future.

MATTER, A. JACQUES. French historian aud philosopher, born at Alteckeridort, near Strasbourg, May 31, 1791. At 20, he won first prize at the Academic des Inscriptiones with, L’Histoire de L’hcole d’Alexandrie, (pub. 3 Vols., 1840, 2nd ed.) . In 1820, be taught the theological faculty of Stinasbourg in Ecclesiastical History, aud

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published Histoire general du christianisme et de la Societe chretienne. Paris, 4 Vols. His next work was Histoire critique du guosticisme, etc., etc. Paris, 1828, again in 1843-44 in 2 Vols., translated into German by Dorner as well. In this work, Matter reviews much of importance to the student of Gnosticism aud comparative religion. He went on to publish several works dealing with Christianity, becoming Professor of the Protestant Seminary at Stinasbourg in 1846, aud died there, June 23, 1864. His son, Albert Jules Timothee, (b. June 3, 1832) was also concerned with these areas, aud among others published; Dc l’Authentieite du fragment de Sanchoniathon cite par Eusebe, Paris, 1848. Matter’s first edition of the Histoire critique du guosticisme does not contain any reference to the Pistis Sophia but the later German translation contains two: p. 69 fn., and p. 163 fn., of Vol. 2.

MEAD, GEORGE ROBERT STOWE. Born at Nuneaton, March 22, 1863, son of Colonel Robert Mead, H. M. Ordnance, aud Mary. Educated at Rochester Cathedral school, (Mr. Laughoinne) aud St. John’s College, Cambridge, B.A., 1884, aud M.A., 1926. Shortly after graduating with honors, Mead joined the Theosophical Society, aud in the same year began teaching at a public school, 1884. He had begun the study of mathematics at Cambridge, but soon changed to the classics, gaining a knowledge of Greek and Latin, which was to be an asset in forthcoming years. About this time he read Esoteric Buddhism aud became associated with Bertram Keightlcy aud Mohini Chatteinji; then followed an intense interest in Hinduism, developed by studying philosophy at Ox’ford, aud curiosity regarding spiritualism causing a brief stay at a French university at Clermont-Feinraud. He first met H.P.B. in 1887: “When I first went to her to work permanently (1889), I was a young man of whom she practically knew nothing, except that from May, 1887 . . . when she returned to England for the last time, I spent no little of my holidays in visits to Maycott, Upper Norwood, aud to 17 Lansdownc Road, Bayswatcr. Nevertheless, with childlike confidence, aud with one of those large and eccentric gestures of hers, she handed over to me at once the keys of her desk aud bookcases and tossed over, unopened, her voluminous coinresponduce, bidding me answer it as best I might (and “be d--d”), as she wanted all her time for writing her articles and books . . . .“ Mead remained her private secretary for the last three years of her life, while in forming the European Section of the Theosophical Society, he was its General Secretary beginning July 9th, 1890. Within a year, H.P.B. had passed away, aud Mead in company with Annie Besant took over as editors of


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Lucifer, begun by H.P.B. in 1887. Besides his other duties, Mead’s career as an author began with his first publication, Simon Magus, an Essay, 1892. With Mrs. Besant he also edited a collection of H.P.B.’s miscellaneous papers, which was issued as “Volume III” of the Secret Doctrine, Adyar, 1897; Theosophical Glossary, 1892; Key to Theosophy, 3rd ed., 1893; Five Years of Theosophy, 2nd ed., 1894; A Modern Panarion, 1895. Lucifer continued until 1898 (Vol. XXI) when it was succeeded by The Theosophical Review, edited solely by Mead. In 1899 he married Laura Mary Cooper, sister of Mrs. Cooper-Oakley (who authored The Corn ptc de St. Gcrmain), aud daughter of Frederick Cooper, I.C.S. She lived until 1924. Also during that period he was vice president aud later president of the Blavatsky Lodge, London. He continued to edit Theosophical Review, contributing many articles aud reviews, of the latter there were about 18 in Lucifer, aud 45 in T.R.
About this time began the prominence of Mr. Leadheater as his many writings were published, aud increasing numbers were drawn into the society by his views, aud by his references to his “psychic” experiences, which views were not always shared by earlier members.
At the beginning of 1906, grave charges were brought against
C.W. Leadheater by several scandalized mothers in the U.S.A., whose young sons had been taught certain morally oblique practices. After a great deal of publicity aud legal action by the distraught mothers, a Judicial Committee was convened by Col. Oleott. The evidence being clear aud incontrovertible against Leadheatein, his resignation from the Theosophical Society was accepted to close the matter.
In May, 1908, a new phase of the above-mentioned events cropped up, when Dr. Weller van Hook, General Secretary of the Amerlcan Section wrote an Open Letter to his Section defending Lead-beater’s position aud ideas.
A large number of members in the then British Section were deeply concerned over the state of affairs, aud the Annual British Convention in July, 1908, carried a resolution requesting the President aud General Council of the T.S. to put an end once for all to this matter. After full deliberation, the President aud the Council saw no reason why Mr. Leadheater should not be restored to membership.” Whereupon upwards of 700 members in England resigned from the Society. Mend of course, was one of them. In a Valedictory published in the February, 1909, issue of The Theosophical Review, (No. 258) he bid farewell to his readers, as Editor of the Review, specifically stating that he had lost confidence in the President aud its chief Officials.


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About 150 of the dissidents aud some 100 others who approved, joined together to found the Quest Society aud to publish a new journal with the title of The Quest. The Quest, a quarterly review, began in October 1909, aud continued with Mead as editor until it ceased publication in 1930. It attracted many serious scholars who contributed valuable articles considered as source material today. Mead carried on these activities despite severe financial difficulties for 21 years, finding time to work for the welfare of Indian students as Secretary of the Northbrook Society. The financial reverses of 1929/30 spelled an end to the Quest Society, but he became active in the newly formed Society for Promoting the Study of Religions, becoming a member of its council. His last public appearance was at a meeting of The Royal Asiatic Society, where he delivered a lecture on the Mandacans, a subject with which he was on the most intimate terms, as shown by the many articles appearing in Quest. He died September 29th, 1933 at the age of 65, after returning from a holiday in bad health. Of all the members of the Theosophical movement throughout the years, G. R. S. Mead was one of the few true scholars to emerge. His studies bearing upon’ the origins of Christianity constitute the only real bridge between early Gnosticism aud the philosophy of the Mandacans, with what has come to be called “Christianity” in this century. A collection of all of his works would fill several volumes, aud provide students with an invaluable aid for research. John M. Watkins, his literary executor found no papers in his estate.

Some of the chapters on various subjects contained in Mead’s published works appeared at first in one or another of the magazines of which he was the Editor. After some editing, revising aud sometimes augmenting the text, they were incorporated into the MSS. of his published works. The list of the latter is quite imposing. We mention them in a chronological squence:

“Among the Guostics of the First Two Centuries,” Lucifer, Vols. XIX aud XX, December, 1896 through August, 1897. Marked as “to be continued,” but no continuation available.

Simon Magus. Au Essay. London, Theos. PubI. Society, aud The Path, New York, 1892; 91 pp. Printed at the H.P.B. Press. Valuable analysis of the Source Material. (paper covers)

Select Works of Plotinus. Thomas Taylor. 1817. Edited with Preface
aud Bibliography by G. R. S. Mead. London. G. Bell & Sons, 1895;
lxxiv +343 pp.; no index. Bohn’s Philosophical Library. Also
1914, in Bohu’s Popular Library. Also 1929.


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The World-Mystery. Four Comparative Studies in General Theosophy. London & Benares, The Theos. PubI. Society, 1895; 200 pp. Index’, Second ed., 1907. Originally appeared in Lucifer.

The Upanishads. Translated into English with a Preamble aud Arguments by G. R. S. Mead aud Jagadisha Chaudra Chattopidhysya. Two small volumes. London, Benares, Madras, Theos. Publishing Society, 1896; 137 aud 98 pp. resp.

Pistis Sophia. A Gnostic Gospel . . . . for the First time Englished from Sehwartze’s Latin Version of the only known Coptic MS. aud checked by Ameliueau’s French version. Valuable Introduction aud Bibliography. London & Madras, Theosophical Publish. ing Society, 1896; xliv ±394 pp.; 2nd ed. rev, with annot. bibliography, 1921.

Orpheus. 1896; 208 pp. Copious Bibliography. Second ed., London, J. M. Watkins, 1865.

Fragments of a Faith Forgotten London & Benares. Theosophical Publishing Society, 1900; xxviii +630 pp.; extensive Bibliographics.—Second edition: University Books, New Hyde Park, N.Y. With Introduction by Kenneth Rexinoth; lxvii +633 pp. Copious Index.

Apollonius of Tyana, the Philosopher-Reformer of the First Century A.D. A critical study of the only existing record of his life, etc. London & Benares, Theos. PubI. Society, 1901; 159 pp.; Bibliography. Second ed., University Books, New Hyde Park, N.Y., 1966. Foreword by Leslie Shepard; xxii, 168 pp.; New Index.

The Gospel aud the Gospels. A Study in the most recent results of the lower aud the higher criticism. London, Benares, Theos. Publ. Society, 1902, 215 pp.

Did Jesus Live 100 B.C.? An Inquiry into the Talmud Jesus Stories, the Toldoth Jeschu, etc., London & Benares, Theos. Publ. Society, 1903; xvi +440 pp.

Thrice-Greatest Hermes. Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy aud Guosis.
Vol. 1—Prolegomena; xvi +481 pp.; Vol. Il—Excerpts aud
Fragments; xii +371 pp. Copious Index. Vol. Ill—Sermons; xi
±403 pp. London & Benares, Theos. PubI. Society, 1906.

Echoes from the Guosis. Twelve small booklets entitled: I. The Guosis of the Mind. II. The Hymns of Hermes. III. The Vision of Aridacus. IV. The Hymns of Jesus. V. The Mysteries of Mithina.

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VI. A Mithinaic Ritual. VII. The Gnostic Crucifixion. VIII. The
Chaldacan Oracles, I. IX. The Chaldacan Qinacles, II. X. The
Hymn of the Robe of Glory. XI. The Wedding-Song of Wisdom.
XII. The Words of Heraclitus. London & Benares, 1908, etc.
Averaging about 100 pp.

Some Mystical Adventures. London, John M. Watkins, 1910; 303 pp. Quests Old aud New. London, G. Bell & Sons, 1913; x ±338 pp.


The Doctrine of the Subtle Body in Western Tradition. London, John M. Watkins, 1919; 109 pp. Second Impin., 1967.
The Gnostic John the Baptizer. Selections from the Mandacan John-Book. London, John M. Watkins, 1924; ix ±137 pp.

METRODORUS OF CHIOS. A disciple of Democritus who flourished about 330 B.C. A Philosopher of considerable reputation who professed the doctrine of the sceptics. Author of a work entitled Peni Phuseeis of which we have only brief fragments. He was also a student of medicine.

MEURSIUS, JOHANNES (Johanues van Meurs, 1579-1639) . Dutch classical scholar and antiquary. Professor of Greek at Leyden. Political disturbances caused him to move to Son, in Denmark, where he died. *Denarius Pythagoricus (Lugduni Batavarum: cx officina I. Maine, 1631, 112 pp.) is one of his many classical treatises, most of which arc printed in Gronovius’ Thesaurus Antiquitatum.

MIGNE, JACQUES PAUL. (l’abbe) (1800-1875) . Dictionnaine des Apocryphes, in Encyclopedic theologique troisieme et deruiere, ou. TroIsle mc et derniere senie de Dietionnaires sun touts les parties de la selence religicuse. Paris, 1858-60. The reference is to be found in the appendix to tome 1, part 2, pp. 1181-1286, of volume xxiii. Vide, BCW Vol. V., p. 378.

MOGILA, PETER (Petrus Mogilus) (1600?-1647). Metropolitan of Kieft (or Kiev) from 1632, belonged to a noble Wallachian family. Studied at the University of Paris, aud first became a monk in 1625. Author of Catechism published in 1645 at Kieff, aud other minor works. He is chiefly remembered for his Orthodox Confession, drawn up at the behest of Abbot Kosslowski of Kieff, aud approved by the pro. vincial synod 1640, aud later by the synod of Jerusalem 1672. During Mogila’s time the reform movement of the Calvinistic Cyril Lucanis (Patriarch of Alexandria aud Constantinople 1601-1621) generated intrigue by opposing Jesuits, by whose agency he was 5 times

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deposed but reinstated. Finally, the Church anathematized his doctrines, aud he was murdered by Turks hired by the Jesuits. Chief testimony against him was the Orthodox Confession which formed much of the basis of the Russian Orthodox catechisms seen today. Editions of the Orthodox Confession: edited by Panagiotes in Greek aud Latin, Amsterdam, 1662; by Hofmanu, Leipsic, 1695; Kimmel, Jena, 1843; Greek translation by Johanne L. Fniseb, Frankfurt, 1727.

MLLER, GEORGE. English preacher aud philanthropist, born near Halberstadt, Germany, September 27, 1805; died at Bristol, March 10, 1898. In 1830, he became minister of a small congregation at Tiegn. mouth, Devonshire. His contention was that the temporal as well as the spiritual needs of life could be supplied by prayer, aud on this principle abolished pew rents aud refused to take a fixed salary. Two years later, he moved to Bristol where he spent the rest of his life, devoting himself especially to the care of orphan children. In time, their number grew to 2,000, settled in five large houses at Ashley Down, near Bristol, aud supported by voluntary contributions. Miillcr wrote a curious little narrative called The Lord’s Deal-hugs with George MIller. When he was seventy, he started on a preaching mission, which lasted over 17 years aud took him all over the world. All in all, he was a veiny remarkable man leading the spiritual life.

NICEPHORUS, PATRIARCHA (ca. 758-829) . Byzantine historian aud Patriarch of Constantinople (806-815) . Like his father, be was a zealous opponent of Iconoclasm. He was secretary to the imperial commissaries at the second Council of Nicaca in 787, where his view prevailed. He later retired for awhile into a convent, but very suddenly succeeded Tarasius as Patriarch of Constantinople in 806. He was deposed by Emperor Leo V in 815 aud died in exile, 827. His works are esteemed for their intrinsic value aud their style. Among them should be mentioned Brcvarium Historicum, one of the best works of the Byzantine period, aud the Stichornetnia (text aud transl. in Petri Pithoci Opera Posthuma, Paris, 1609) .

NIEBUHR, BARTHOLD GEORG. German statesman aud historian, born at Copenhagen, August 27, 1776; died at Bonn, January 2, 1831. After studying at the University of Kidl, became private secretary to Count Schimmelmaun, Danish minister of finance, aud in 1799 entered state service. Chief director of the National Bank, 1804.06, when he took a similar appointment in Prussia. Made royal his-toniographer aud professor at Berlin university, 1810, aud two years

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later published the first two volumes of his epoch-making Romisehe Cesehichte (Eng. transl., 1847), a 3rd volume being added in 1832. This work has had a momentous influence on the general conception of history. Niebubin was ambassador in Rome, 1816.1832, where he also discovered various yet unknown fragments of Cicero aud Livy, aided Cardinal Mai in his work, aud shared in planning von Bunsen’s aud Platner’s work on the topography of Rome.

PALINGENIO STELLATO, MARCELLO. Italian author whose actual name was Pier Angelo Mauzoli. He was born at La Stellata at about 1503, aud died in 1543. His didactic poem titled *Zodiacus vitae: hoe est de hominis vita, studio ac monibus optime instituendes, aud published about 1534, was dedicated to Hercules II of Ferrara; it combines metaphysical speculation with satirical attacks on ecclesiastical hypocrisy, especially on the Pope aud on Luther. It was of course banned by the Inquisition. English transl. by Baruabe Googe, London, 1561, as The Zodiake of Lyfe.

PAUL OF SAMOSATA. Patriarch of Antioch, 260.272 A.D., most likely of humble origin. Information concerning him is derived mainly from the encyclical letter of his ecclesiastical opponents (in Eusebius’ History, Bk. VII, ch. 30), seventy of whom deposed Paul after the synod of Antioch in 269; their sentence did not take effect, however, until late in 272, when Emperor Aurelian installed the rival candidate Domnus in the place of Paul.
Paul held that it was a man aud not the divine Logos which was born of Mary. Jesus was a man who came to be God, rather than God become man. This was the idea of the early Ebionites aud of some of the doctors of the Syrian Church of the 4th aud 5th centuries. Lucian, the great exegete of Antioch aud his school derived of their inspiration from Paul, aud he was through Lucian a forefather of Anianism. The sect of the Paulicians also owe some of their ideas to Paul of Samosata. The fanaticism of his contemporaries aud succeeding generations left us nothing but a few fragments of his writings, which apparently contained some true mysticism.

PIROGOFF (PIROGOV) NICHOLAI IVANOVICH (1810-1881). Surgeon aud pathologist of St. Petersburg. [The British Museum catalogs show 13 titles by this author.] Vide, BCW XII, p. 135 fn. aud p. 760. The philosophical concepts referred to by H.P.B. are to be found in his Diaries.


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POCOCKE, EDWARD (1604.1691) . English Orientalist aud Biblical scholar. Educated at Corpus Christi college, Oxford, of which he became a fellow, 1628. He sailed for Aleppo, 1630 as chaplain to an English factory. There he studied Arabic aud collected many valuable MSS. In 1636, he held the chair of Arabic at Oxford, but soon returned to the Middle East. In 1648, he was given the chair of Hebrew at Oxford. Apart from a number of learned treatises on Arabian history aud ancient manuscripts, he wrote a work entitled India in Greece; or Truth in Mythology (London, 1852) which throws a flood of light on the Oriental source of Greek mythology.

PROCTOR, RICHARD ANTHONY. British astronomer, born at Chelsea, March 23, 1837; died at New York, September 12, 1888. Educated privately, then at King’s college, London, aud at St. John’s college, Cambridge. Read for the bar, but turned to astronomy aud writing. After a technical work, Saturn aud His System (1865), which proved a financial failure, he cultivated a more popular style. Founded 1881, a popular magazine called Knowledge wherein he wrote on a great many subjects. His most ambitious work, Old aud New Astronomy, was completed after his death. He had settled in New York around 1881. In addition to articles on astronomy contributed by him for the 9th ed. of the Encyclopedia Britannica (1875), he Wrote several other works, among which was one entitled Our Place Among Infinities (London, 1875; New York, 1876) which H.P.B. referred to aud quoted from many times, mainly because of his favorable views on astrology.

QUATREFAGES DE BREAU, JEAN-LOUIS ARMAND DE (1810-1892). The Human Species, Appleton Co., N.Y.C., 1879, 1881, 1884, etc. Vide BCW Vol. VIII, p. 472 for biographical sketch.

RAGON, JEAN-BAPTISTE-MARIE (1781-1862) . Maconnenic Occulte, et de L’iriitiatiou Hermetique. Paris, 1926. Biographical sketch in BCW Vol. XI, p. 587.

RENAN, JOSEPH ERNST (1823-1892). Vie de Jesus. Paris, 1863. Six editions in the first year. English translation by Charles E. Wilbour, Carleton, N.Y.C., 1864.

ROUGE, OLIVER CHARLES EMMANUEL, VICOMPTE DE. Born at Paris, April 11, 1818. Educated at the college of Saint Acheul, aud was pine-paining for the state council, then turned to the study of Arabic aud Hebrew at Paris. He discovered Champollion’s Egyptian grammar.


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aud began to decipher hieroglyphics, refuting Lepsius aud Bunsen in: Examen de l’ouvnagc du chevalier de Bunsen, la Place de l’hgypte dans l’histoire du monde. (Annales de Philosophic chretienuc, Paris 1846.47). This was followed by many similar treatises in French journals, aud in 1849 he was made Conservator of the Egyptian section at the Louvre. He was instrumental in gaining antiquities for London, Turin, Berlin, aud Leiden museums while continuing to study history aud philology, aud contributing widely to the study of Egyptology in many journals. In 1860 he replaced Lenormant for the Chair of Egyptology at the College of France, aud visited Egypt twice, (1862.63, aud 1870-71) while continuing his prolific writing. Chrestomathic egyptienue, 4 Vols. 1867.76; Etudes sur le Rituel funeraire, in,—Revue ancheologique, Vol. I, Paris 1860; Recherehes sun le monuments qu’on peut attnibuer aux six premieres dynasties de Manethon, Paris 1864-65. He died of a lung infection 27 December 1872.

ROUGEMONT, FREDERIC DE (1808-1876) . Le Peuple pnimitif, sa religion, son histoire et sa civilisation. 3 Vols, Geneva, 1855.57. [British Museum catalogues show 20 titles by this author.]

ROW, T. SUBBA (1856-1890). Vide, BCW Vol. V, pp. 267-72 for biographical sketch.

SCHLEIERMACHER, FRIEDRICH DANIEL ERNST (1768-1834). Uber de Religion. Reden an die gebildeten unter ibren Venacbteru. Berlin, 1799. Translated by J. Oman as: On Religion. Speeches to its cultured despisers, London, Kegan Paul & Co., 1893, lxiii, 287 pp. Schlcier-macher’s works coven 4 pages in the British Museum catalog.

SCHMIDT, CARL (1868-1938) . Gelehrtc Auzeigen, Geittingen, ur. xvii
pp. 640-675, Gottingen, 1891. A negative review of Amelineau’s 1890
translation of the Bruce Codex.
—Gelchrtc Anzeign, Geittingen, ur. 6, pp. 201-202, Geittiugen, 1892. Further comments on the translation of Ameliueau.
—Guostisehe Schriften in koptisehen Spruehe aus dem Codex Brueianus, 692 pp. Leipzig, 1892, Schmidt was the first to find that two different MSS. were used for the Pistis Sophia, aud that the whole was a compilation from many earlier works, aud compares the P.S. with the Bruce Codex’.
—Koptisehe-guostisehe Schrif ten. Bd. I. Die Pistis Sophia. Die beiden Biteher des Jeu Unbekanntes altgnostisches Werk, 410 pp.,2


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Leipzig, 1905. The Pistis Sophia translation is excellent, occupying the first 254 pages.
—hrcuijus und seic Quelle in Adversus Hacresus 1.29, in Philotesia. Paul Klcinert zum LXX. Geburstag danqebraeht von Adolf Harnack, (article in U.S.W.) pp. 317-336, 1907. In this study Schmidt reviews the recently discovered Berlin Codex, which treats of 2nd Century Gnosticism, plus the Apoeryphon of John. Schmidt’s many efforts are reviewed in the helpful annotated bibliography of G. R. S. Mead’s 1921 edition of his Pistis Sophia.

SCHWARTZE, MORITZ GOTTHILF (1802.1848). Pistis Sophia. Opus Guosticum Valentino ad judicat urn e Codiec Manusenipto Coptico Loudinensi descriptum, Latine vent it M. G. Schwartze. edidit J. H. Petermaun, Berlin, 1851. Schwartze made a copy of the manuscript in London, but died before his translation was totally complete . . . a number of blanks needing to be filled in. Petermaun’s notes are confined to grammar aud syntax aud possible variations in the translation selected, aud his completion of the work was done with extreme difficulty. Schwartze felt that the treatise was originally from Valentinus; Petermaun that it was an Ophite work. A review of this translation appeared in Journal des Savants, Paris 1852, p. 333.

SKINNER, JAMES RALSTON. Born Lockport, N.Y. 1830. His formative years are yet untraced, but he was apparently precocious beyond his time, as his uncle, Salmon P. Chase invited him to Cincinnati where he later became a partner in his law firm. The Cincinnati City Directory lists him as an attorney at law in 1851-52. In that same year, the Cincinnati College of Medicine aud Surgery was founded. aud Mr. Skinner was its first professor of pathology, then but 21 years of age. He served in the Union Army during the Civil War, enlisting November 19, 1862, as major aud judge advocate on General Rosecrans’ staff, aud resigned his commission on March 20, 1865. It is said that he temporarily lost his reason when a fellow soldier was decapitated by a cannon ball. In 1870 he was a founding member aud officer of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, with which be was active throughout his life. About this time, be began to write for the Masonic Review on the subjects that occupied the remainder of his years. The following is a list of printed works known at present. Most were published by Robert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati.

—The Ancient of Days. The Measure of the Heavens and the Earth by means of the only unit of Alcasure, The British hinch. 1873. (46 pages)


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—A Value of Symbolism. 1872. (47 pages) Skinner’s name does not appear.
—The Great Pyramid of Gizch. The Plan aud Object of its Construction. 1871. (17 pages)
—The Key to the Hebrew Egyptian Mystery in the Source of Ahca sures, etc. 1875.
—An Essay on Force in Nature aud its effect upon Matter. 1869.
—Supplement: to the Source of Measures, 1876. (63 pages)
—The Crown Jewels of the Nations arc their Measures. 1877. (90 pages)
—Some Light on the Egyptian Method of Chronology. (no date or author given, but an advertisement for the Source of Measures appears on the back.
—International Inst. for preserving Weights aud Measures: Ohio auxiliary society, Cleveland. . . . Actual measures of the Great Pyramid of Egypt, in terms of the British inch: disclosing, by its means, the architectural system employed in its construction. To accompany the sectional plan prepared by Mr. Charles Latimer. Toledo, Blode printing aud paper company, 1880.
—A Criticism of the Legeudre Mode of Rectifications of the Curve of the Circle, 1881. (22 pages)
—The Donie lonian aud Corinthian columns in Grecian Architecture. Cincinnati, 1885. 1 pam. (PMS) *
—Hebrew Metrology. (Ciun.) (1885) 1 pam. (PMS)
—Identification of the British inch as the unit of measure of the mound builders of the Ohio Valley: appendix C. The Richardson tablet, the Gest Tablet aud the Clarke tablet as related to aud connected with the Bridley measuring stone. 243 pp. (MLUP)
—The identification of the British inch as the unit of measure of the mound builders of the Ohio Valley. (Ciun.) (1886.87) 3 nos. in 1. (PMS)
—To obtain the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle, its sides being given without extracting the square root. (Ciun.) (1886) 1 pam. (PMS)
—Source of Measures, with Supplement. 1894.
This reprint of both portions of Mr. Skinner’s treatise is interesting. In 1908, an Indian student at Adyar wrote to the Robert Clarke Co. after a fruitless search for the book, aud received the

*PMS is: Peabody Museum of Salem, Phillip’s Library East India Marine Hall, 161 Essex St., Salem, M.
MLUP is: University of Pennsylvania. 3420 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA. Museum at 33rd aud Spruce.

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following reply from the publisher: “The entire edition of this valuable work was destroyed in our disastrous fine some few years since aud copies have become exceedingly scarce. The work has not been reprinted aud is not likely to be. We already have a number of requests on file aud have added your name to the list aud should a copy come into our hands will advise you. The work was originally published at $5.00.” No copy was available until May, 1923, when one copy was procured at New York for
—Same, reprinted at Philadelphia, David McKay Co., limited to 500 copies. 1931.
—Same, reprinted by Wizards Bookshelf, Minneapolis, 1972. (535 copies.)
—Same, reprinted by Wizards Bookshelf, Minneapolis, 1975. 1000 copies, with small index, aud bibliography.
—Same, reprinted with an additional 75 page index of Hebrew terms aud numerical occurrence , aud with an outline of Skinner’s works appended by John Drais, San Diego, 1982.
There are three known unpublished manuscripts by Mr. Skinner. The first is titled “Notes aud Comments on the ten books of
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, translated from the Latin by Joseph Gwilt, Architect; with a prefatory essay entitled, An Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty in Grecian Architecture by George, Earl of Aberdeen, London, 1867; by J. Ralston Skinner.” The above is bound, is in Skinner’s band, aud has 194 pages. Three letters to Mary Fletcher Huntington are included, dated 1884 aud 1885.
The second is 298 leaves of typescript, both original aud carbon, in a fine binding at the Cincinnati Public Library, entitled, “A Modulous System of measures founded on the British Inch, etc., etc.”
The third is at the archives of the Theosophical Society, Adyar. It was discovered at Varanasi with other manuscripts of H.P.B.’s. It is a manuscript of 358 pages written on one side only, interspersed with number arrangements aud number diagrams. This is what Skinner considered as “Volume III” of the Source of Measures. In about 25 places H.P.B. has made changes, corrections aud insertions, aud in several cases wrote brief remarks on blank pages facing the text. Skinner called this treatise “Art Speech”. See: Secret Doctrine, Index Volume, T.P.H. Adyar, 1979, p. 445. Also: The Theosophist, August, 1923, p. 564, “A Unique Manuscript”, by C. Jinarajadasa.
Mr. Skinner also wrote over a period of 23 years, a “Symbolic Translation of the Bible’.’. Only three copies were printed, one of which was in the hands of his longtime friend, J. D. Buck, a fellow


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Mason (See, BCW Vol. III, p. 498) aud his literary legatee. It as not known if this is the “Masonic Bible” used by several U.S. Presidents when sworn into office.
Mr. Skinner was initiated into MeMillan Lodge No. 141 at Cincinnati, of the Grand Lodge of Free aud Accepted Masons of Ohio, May 6, 1885. his passing occurred on September 2, 1893.

SMITH, GEORGE (1840.1876). *Ancient History from the Ahonuments.
The History of Babylonia. Edited by Rev. A. R. Sayce. London:
Society for promoting Christian knowledge, etc., 1877; also 1884,
1888, 1895.

THIRLWALL, CONNOP. English bishop aud historian, born at Stepucy, London, January 11, 1797; died at Bath, July 27, 1875. Educated at Charterhouse aud at Trinity college, Cambridge. Ordained deacon, 1827. Was for a while assistant college tutor at Cambridge, but resigned, 1834, as a result of controversy about the admission of Dissenters. In 1840, he was raised by Lord Melbourne to the see of St. David’s, aud proved himself a very liberal aud wise administrator, espousing various broadminded causes connected with the Church, aud taking great interest in the Revision of the Authorized Version of the Bible. He resigned his see in 1874. His History of Greece (1835.44; new ed., 1845-52) has remained a standard work.

TIMAEUS OF LOCRI. Pythagorean philosopher, a native of Italy aud said to have been a teacher of Plato. There is an extant work bearing,his name, written in the Donie dialect, aud entitled Peni psychas (On the Soul) which is mainly an abridgment of Plato’s dialogue of Timacus. The best ed. of it is that of J. J. de Gelder, Leyden,,1836. It has also been published by C. F. Herman (together with Plato’s Timacus) , Leipzig, 1852.

VIVIEN DE SAINT MARTIN, LOUIS (1802-1887). Historic de la Geographic et des decouvertes geographiques depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu’e nos jours. Paris, 1873. There are also 14 other titles by this author.

VULPIAN, EDME-FELIx-ALFRED (1826-1887) . French pathologist. Vide, BCW Vol. II, p. 548 for biographical information.

WILDER, DR. ALEXANDER (1823-1908). Black Nations of Europe. Untraced to date. For biographical sketch, see BCW Vol. 1. p. 531.


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WILSON, HORACE HAYMAN (1786.1860) . English physician aud orient
ist, whose works were published in total as The Works of H. H

Wilson, 12 Vols., Leipsig, 1860-1871. Vide, BCW Vol. II, p.

WOIDE, CHARLES GODFREY (or Carl Gottfnied) (b. 1725 in Poland, d. 1790). Preacher at German Royal Chapel, St. James 1770; Assistant Librarian at the British Museum 1782. His works include:
* (On Pistis Sophia)

—Article: The British Theological Magazine (Das Bnittisehe theolo. Magazine) Vol. I, Part 4, p. 223 (concerning Dr. Askew’s travels in Italy aud Greece, aud his obtaining the Codex Alexandninus by chance at a book store.)
—Article in: Journal des Savants, Paris, 1773.
—Article in: Beytruge zur Befeinderung theologiseher und ander wiehtigen Kenutnisse, (J. A. Cramer, editor) . Vol. III, p. 82,
Kidl und Hamburg, 1778.
—Notitia codicis Alexandrini cum varius, cius leetionibus omnibus:
recundendam curvait notasque adiecit G. L. Spohu. Lipsia, 1788,
—In 1775 was published a dictionary of Coptic prepared by M. V. La Crose, aud completed by Chnistianus Scholtz, edited by Woide
aud issued at Oxford in Latin.
—In 1778 a Grammain by the same panties in Coptic/Latin at Oxford.
—In 1786 Woide edited the *Ncw Testament according to the text of the Codex Alexandninus, in unical types cast to imitate those of the manuscript. In an appendix to this great undertaking he added certain fragments of the N.T. in the Thebiaco-Coptic dialect, together with a dissertation on the Coptic version of the New Testament, assigning the date of the Codex Alexaudninus to the 5th century, aud thus the third oldest manuscript of the N.T. in existence. Ox’ford 132 p., pub. 1799, posthumously.
—Novum Testamentum Graceum, cx codice MS. Alexandnino qui Londini in Bibliotheca Musci (Kings MS., 1 D. VIII asservatur discriptum a Carobo Godofredo Woide, etc.: London, cx prelo Joannis Nichols, 1786. Folio, 500 copies (on velum, 6 copies, with various readings) .
—In Modern Greek type, *Codex Alexaudninus
Novum Testamentum Gracce, cx antiquissimo Codice Alexandnino
a C. C. Woide ohim descniptum ad fidurn ipsius Codicis denuo
aceuratius editit B. H. Cow per, London, Williams & Norgate,
1860 (504 pp.).
—Article (On a Palm yrene Coin) in: Areheobogia, Vol. VI, p. 130, London, 1782.